Ancient Roman Ruins in Rome, Italy
Wikimedia Commons category: Forum Romanum
English Roman Forum
The Roman Forum, also known by its Latin name Forum Romanum (Italian: Foro Romano), is a rectangular forum (plaza) surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome. Citizens of the ancient city referred to this space, originally a marketplace, as the Forum Magnum, or simply the Forum.
For centuries the Forum was the center of day-to-day life in Rome: the site of triumphal processions and elections; the venue for public speeches, criminal trials, and gladiatorial matches; and the nucleus of commercial affairs. Here statues and monuments commemorated the city's great men. The teeming heart of ancient Rome, it has been called the most celebrated meeting place in the world, and in all history. Located in the small valley between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, the Forum today is a sprawling ruin of architectural fragments and intermittent archaeological excavations attracting 4.5 million or more sightseers yearly.Many of the oldest and most important structures of the ancient city were located on or near the Forum. The Roman Kingdom's earliest shrines and temples were located on the southeastern edge. These included the ancient former royal residence, the Regia (8th century BC), and the Temple of Vesta (7th century BC), as well as the surrounding complex of the Vestal Virgins, all of which were rebuilt after the rise of imperial Rome.
Other archaic shrines to the northwest, such as the Umbilicus Urbis and the Vulcanal (Shrine of Vulcan), developed into the Republic's formal Comitium (assembly area). This is where the Senate—as well as Republican government itself—began. The Senate House, government offices, tribunals, temples, memorials and statues gradually cluttered the area.
Over time the archaic Comitium was replaced by the larger adjacent Forum and the focus of judicial activity moved to the new Basilica Aemilia (179 BC). Some 130 years later, Julius Caesar built the Basilica Julia, along with the new Curia Julia, refocusing both the judicial offices and the Senate itself. This new Forum, in what proved to be its final form, then served as a revitalized city square where the people of Rome could gather for commercial, political, judicial and religious pursuits in ever greater numbers.
Eventually much economic and judicial business would transfer away from the Forum Romanum to the larger and more extravagant structures (Trajan's Forum and the Basilica Ulpia) to the north. The reign of Constantine the Great saw the construction of the last major expansion of the Forum complex—the Basilica of Maxentius (312 AD). This returned the political center to the Forum until the fall of the Western Roman Empire almost two centuries later.
Source: Roman Forum
German Forum Romanum
Das Forum Romanum (Römischer Marktplatz) in Rom ist das älteste römische Forum und war Mittelpunkt des politischen, wirtschaftlichen, kulturellen und religiösen Lebens. Es liegt in einer Senke zwischen den drei Stadthügeln Kapitol, Palatin und Esquilin und war der Ort vieler öffentlicher Gebäude und Denkmäler.
Ursprünglich ein von einem Bach durchzogenes, sumpfiges Tal, wurde es laut der antiken Überlieferung, die nicht mit dem bis wohl ins 8. Jahrhundert v. Chr. zurückreichenden archäologischen Befund übereinstimmt, erst unter dem legendären etruskischen König Lucius Tarquinius Priscus zu Beginn des 6. Jahrhunderts v. Chr. in die Stadt einbezogen. Den Höhepunkt seines prachtvollen Ausbaus erlebte es in der Römischen Kaiserzeit. Es ist heute eine der wichtigsten Ausgrabungsstätten des antiken Roms.
Source: Forum Romanum
Polish Forum Romanum
Forum Romanum (pol. – rynek rzymski), inna nazwa to Forum Magnum – najstarszy plac miejski w Rzymie, otoczony sześcioma z siedmiu wzgórz: Kapitolem, Palatynem, Celiusem, Eskwilinem, Wiminałem i Kwirynałem. Główny polityczny, religijny i towarzyski ośrodek starożytnego Rzymu, miejsce odbywania się najważniejszych uroczystości publicznych.
Source: Forum Romanum
Russian Римский форум
Ри́мский фо́рум (лат. Forum Romanum) — форум в центре Древнего Рима, вместе с прилегающими зданиями. Первоначально на нём размещался рынок, позже он включил в себя комиций, курию, и приобрел политические функции.
Source: Римский форум
Ukrainian Римський Форум
Римський Форум (лат. Forum Romanum) — площа в центрі стародавнього Рима разом з прилеглими будівлями. Спочатку на ній розташовувався ринок, пізніше вона охопила коміції (замість народних зібрань), курію (замість засідань Сената) та придбала також політичні функції.
Форум Рима, подібно форумам в інших давньоримських містах, служив центром суспільного життя, та з повсякденного спілкування людей еволюціонувало тематичне спілкування, що носить всі ознаки того, що ми сьогодні називаємо «форумами»: форум як міжнародний конгрес і інтернет-форум.
Source: Римський Форум
cs Forum Romanum
Forum Romanum bylo v dobách antického Říma centrum veřejného dění ve městě i v říši. Je to zhruba obdélné náměstí o rozměrech asi 130x60 m mezi pahorky Kapitol a Palatin, kterým prochází hlavní římská cesta Via Sacra, spojující pahorek Kapitol s Koloseem. Konaly se zde slavnosti, triumfální průvody, soudy, volby, politická shromáždění i trhy. Kolem původního tržiště v období od 7. století př. n. l. do konce západořímské říše (476) postupně vzniklo množství veřejných budov (bazilik), chrámů, vítězných oblouků a veřejných řečnišť (rostra). V současné době je to velká oblast zbytků staveb a archeologických vykopávek, nepřehledně nakupených v mnoha vrstvách.
Source: Forum Romanum
Spanish Foro Romano
El Foro Romano (en latín, Forum Romanum, aunque los romanos se referían a él comúnmente como Forum Magnum o simplemente Forum) era el foro de la ciudad de Roma, es decir, la zona central, semejante a las plazas centrales en las ciudades actuales, donde se encuentran las instituciones de gobierno, mercado y religión. Al igual que hoy en día era donde tenían lugar el comercio, los negocios, la prostitución, la religión y la administración de justicia. En él se situaba el hogar comunal. Series de restos de pavimento muestran que sedimentos erosionados desde las colinas circundantes ya estaban elevando el nivel del foro en la primera época de la República. Originalmente había sido un terreno pantanoso, que fue drenado por los Tarquinios mediante la Cloaca Máxima. Su pavimento de travertino definitivo, que aún puede verse, data del reinado de César Augusto.
Actualmente es famoso por sus restos, que muestran elocuentemente el uso de los espacios urbanos durante el Imperio romano. El Foro Romano incluye los siguientes monumentos, edificios y demás ruinas antiguas importantes:
Templo de Cástor y Pólux
Templo de Rómulo
Templo de Saturno
Templo de Vesta
Casa de las Vestales
Templo de Venus y Roma
Templo de César
Arco de Septimio Severo
Arco de Tito
Rostra (plural de rostrum), la tribuna desde donde los políticos daban sus discursos a los ciudadanos romanos.
Curia Julia, sede del Senado.
Basílica de Majencio y Constantino
Templo de Antonino y Faustina
Templo de Vespasiano y Tito
Templo de la Concordia
Templo de JanoUn camino procesional, la Vía Sacra, cruza el Foro Romano conectándolo con el Coliseo. Al final del Imperio perdió su uso cotidiano quedando como lugar sagrado.
El último monumento construido en el Foro fue la Columna de Focas. Durante la Edad Media, aunque la memoria del Foro Romano persistió, los edificios fueron en su mayor parte enterrados bajo escombros y su localización, la zona entre el monte Capitolino y el Coliseo, fue designada Campo Vaccinio o ‘campo bovino’. El regreso del papa Urbano V desde Aviñón en 1367 despertó un creciente interés por los monumentos antiguos, en parte por su lección moral y en parte como cantera para construir nuevos edificios. Se extrajo gran cantidad de mármol para construcciones papales (en el Vaticano principalmente) y para cocer en hornos creados en el mismo foro para hacer cal. Miguel Ángel expresó en muchas ocasiones su oposición a la destrucción de los restos. Artistas de finales del siglo XV dibujaron las ruinas del Foro, los anticuarios copiaron inscripciones desde el siglo XVI y se comenzó una excavación profesional a finales del siglo XVIII. Un cardenal tomó medidas para drenarlo de nuevo y construyó el barrio Alessadrine sobre él. No obstante, la excavación de Carlo Fea, quien empezó a retirar los escombros del Arco de Septimio Severo en 1803, y los arqueólogos del régimen napoleónico marcaron el comienzo de la limpieza del Foro, que no fue totalmente excavado hasta principios del siglo XX.
En su estado actual, se muestran juntos restos de varios siglos, debido a la práctica romana de construir sobre ruinas más antiguas.
Existieron foros en otras zonas de la ciudad, conservándose restos en ocasiones considerables de la mayoría de ellos. Los foros en la antigua ciudad de Roma eran los siguientes:
Los más importantes son los grandes foros imperiales (o Fori Imperiali), que formaban un complejo con el Foro Romano. Estos eran el Foro de César (o Forum Iulium), el Foro de Augusto (o Forum Augustum), el Foro de Nerva (o Forum Transitorium) y el Foro de Trajano. Los planificadores del régimen de Mussolini retiraron la mayor parte de los estratos medievales y barrocos y construyeron una carretera entre los foros imperiales y el Foro.
El Foro Boario (o Forum Boarium), entre el monte Palatino y el río Tíber, que estaba dedicado al comercio de ganado.
El Foro Holitorio (o Forum Holitorium), entre el monte Capitolino y las murallas servianas, que estaba dedicado al comercio de hierbas y verduras.
El Forum Piscarium, entre el monte Capitolino y el Tíber, en la zona del actual gueto de Roma, que estaba dedicado al comercio de pescado.
El Forum Suarium, cerca de los barracones de las cohortes urbanae, en la parte norte del campo de Marte, que estaba dedicado al comercio del cerdo.
El Forum Vinarium, en la zona del actual rione Testaccio, entre el monte Aventino y el Tíber, que estaba dedicado al comercio del vino.
Existían otros mercados, pero no son correctamente identificables debido a la falta de información precisa o la pluralidad de ubicaciones. Entre estos está el Forum cuppedinis, dedicado al comercio genérico de varias clases de bienes.
Source: Foro Romano
French Forum Romain (Rome)
Le Forum Romain ou Forum de Rome (Foro Romano en italien, Forum Romanum en latin), appelé aussi Forum Magnum (« Grand Forum ») ou Forum Vetus (« Vieux Forum »), est situé dans le site archéologique le plus important de Rome, entre les collines du Capitole et du Mont Palatin.
Le forum est la place principale de la Rome antique. Son importance historique, religieuse et politique en fait l'endroit autour duquel toute la vie de la ville s'articule : célébration de mariages, organisation de jeux, de combats de gladiateurs, de cérémonies et de fêtes religieuses, de défilés militaires (sur la Via Sacra), de proclamations politiques (par exemple lors de la crémation de Jules César, en ce même lieu)..., il est le centre vivant de la ville, à l'image de l'agora, lieu de rassemblement politique et mercantile des cités grecques.
Source: Forum Romain (Rome)
Italian Foro Romano
Il Foro Romano (in latino Forum Romanum, sebbene i Romani si riferissero ad esso più spesso come Forum Magnum o semplicemente Forum) è un'area archeologica di Roma racchiusa tra il Palatino, il Campidoglio, Via dei Fori Imperiali e il Colosseo, costituita dalla stratificazione dei resti di quegli edifici e monumenti di epoche eterogenee che per gran parte della storia antica di Roma rappresentarono il centro politico, giuridico, religioso ed economico della città di Roma, oltre che il centro nevralgico dell'intera civiltà romana.
Dall'età regia fino all'avvento dell'età medievale la valle del Foro è stata teatro di eventi e sede di istituzioni di importanza tale da aver determinato a più riprese il corso storico della civiltà occidentale, e da aver influenzato in modo preponderante le basi politiche, giuridiche, culturali e filosofiche del pensiero occidentale.
Dopo una fase di declino iniziata nell'età tardoantica il Foro fu oggetto di frequenti spoliazioni e cambi di destinazione d'uso fino a ritrovarsi, nel XVI secolo, quasi completamente interrato e stabilmente utilizzato come pascolo per i bovini, da cui la denominazione di Campo Vaccino.
Su impulso del rinato e crescente interesse per gli studi storico-archeologici di fine Ottocento e anche a causa delle imponenti ristrutturazioni urbanistiche dell'Italia post-unitaria e fascista, l'area del Foro è stata gradualmente riportata alla luce, studiata e musealizzata, diventando con il Colosseo e il Palatino uno dei siti archeologici più illustri e visitati al mondo.
Source: Foro Romano
フォロ・ロマーノ（伊:Foro Romano）は、ローマにある古代ローマ時代の遺跡。観光地として有名である。フォロ・ロマーノは、ラテン語の古名フォルム・ロマヌム（Forum Romanum）のイタリア語読みである。
pt Fórum Romano
O Fórum Romano (em latim: Forum Romanum; em italiano: Foro Romanum) localizado no centro de Roma, é um fórum (praça) rectangular, circundado pelas ruínas de várias construções públicas de grande importância cultural. O principal centro comercial da Roma Imperial, este espaço era popularmente conhecido como Fórum Magno (Forum Magnum) ou, simplesmente, Fórum.
Foi durante séculos o centro da vida pública romana: o local de cerimónias triunfais e de eleições, o local onde se realizavam discursos públicos, os processos criminais, os confrontos entre gladiadores, e o centro dos assuntos comerciais. Aqui, estátuas e monumentos celebraram os grandes homens da cidade. O coração da Roma antiga foi considerado o ponto de encontro mais conhecido do mundo, em toda a história. Localizado no pequeno vale entre o monte Palatino e o monte Capitolino, o fórum é atualmente uma extensa ruína de fragmentos arquitectónicos e um sitio de escavações arqueológicas intermitente de elevada atração turística.
A maioria das estruturas arquitectónicas mais importantes da antiga cidade foram encontradas no fórum ou perto deste. Os santuários e templos do reino romano localizavam-se na parte sudeste da cidade. Dentre estes situava-se a antiga residência real, a Régia (século VIII a.C.), o Templo de Vesta (século VII a.C.) e ainda o complexo da Casa das Vestais, os quais foram reconstruídos após a ascensão de Roma Imperial.
Outros santuários foram encontrados a noroeste, como a Umbilicus Urbis e o Vulcanal (santuário de Vulcano), construídos no centro nervoso do vale, o Comício, durante o período republicano. Este foi o local onde tanto o senado como o governo republicano tiveram início. O Senado, os gabinetes do estado, tribunais, templos, monumentos e estátuas foram gradualmente arquitectando toda a área.
Ao longo do tempo, o Comício arcaico foi comutado pelo maior fórum a ele adjacente e o centro de actividade judicial movido para a nova Basílica Júlia, juntamente com a recente Cúria Júlia, concentrando os dois cargos judiciais e o Senado num só local. Este novo fórum, serviu posteriormente como uma praça revitalizada, onde o povo de Roma poderia ai reunir-se para fins comerciais, políticos, judiciais e persecuções religiosas em números cada vez maiores.
A maioria dos tratos económicos e judiciais eram diferidos para locais distantes do Fórum Romano, envolvendo as maiores e mais extravagantes estruturas como o Fórum de Trajano e a Basílica Úlpia ao norte. O reinado de Constantino, O Grande, durante o qual o império foi dividido em duas fracções, a oriental e a ocidental, presenciou a construção da última grande amplificação da praça - a Basílica de Magêncio em 312 d.C. Este facto devolveu o centro político novamente para o fórum, até à queda do Império Romano do Ocidente quase dois séculos mais tarde.
Source: Fórum Romano
古羅馬廣場（拉丁語：Forum Romanum）位於義大利羅馬帕拉蒂尼山與卡比托利欧山（Collis Capitolinus）之間，它是古羅馬時代的城市中心，包括一些羅馬最古老與最重要的建築。
English The Roman Forum (Foro Romano)
If stones could talk: these hallowed ruins were the most powerful seat of government in the world. To stand in the political, legal and religious centre of the whole Roman Empire brings shivers down one's spine. It is the best way of imagining the splendour and glory of ancient Rome. Located in a small valley between the Capitoline and Palatine hills, access to the Forum is by foot only, from an entrance on the Via dei Fori Imperiali. Wheelchair access is available for most of the Forum but be aware that the path is often bumpy due to it containing original stones from the ancient Roman period. The Forum is much less crowded than the Colosseum and, from a historical perspective, much more interesting. You can hire an audioguide for €5.5 from a small booth just above the Arch of Titus near the Colosseum. These audioguides contain an audio jack so that two people can easily share one.
Russian Римский Форум
Экономический, политический и религиозный центр древнего Рима
Italian Foro Romano
Places located in Roman Forum
The Column of Phocas (Italian: Colonna di Foca) is a Roman monumental column in the Roman Forum of Rome, Italy. Erected in front of the Rostra and dedicated or rededicated in honour of the Eastern Roman Emperor Phocas on August 1, 608, it was the last addition made to the Forum Romanum. The fluted Corinthian column stands 13.6 m (44 ft) tall on its cubical white marble socle. On stylistic grounds, the column seems to have been made in the 2nd century for an unknown structure, and then recycled for the present monument. Likewise, the socle was recycled from its original use supporting a statue dedicated to Diocletian; the former inscription was chiselled away to provide a space for the later text.
The base of the column was uncovered in 1813, and the inscription on it reads, in Latin:
Optimo clementiss[imo piissi]moque / principi domino n[ostro] / F[ocae imperat]ori / perpetuo a d[e]o coronato, [t]riumphatori / semper Augusto / Smaragdus ex praepos[ito] sacri palatii / ac patricius et exarchus Italiae / devotus eius clementiae / pro innumerabilibus pietatis eius beneficiis et pro quiete / procurata Ital[iae] ac conservata libertate / hanc sta(tuam maiesta)tis eius / auri splend(ore fulge)ntem huic / sublimi colu(m)na(e ad) perennem / ipsius gloriam imposuit ac dedicavit / die prima mensis Augusti, indict[ione] und[icesima] / p[ost] c[onsulatum] pietatis eius anno quinto
The English translation is as follows:
To the best, most clement and pious ruler, our lord Phocas the perpetual emperor, crowned by God, the forever august triumphator, did Smaragdus, former praepositus sacri palatii and patricius and Exarch of Italy, devoted to His Clemency for the innumerable benefactions of His Piousness and for the peace acquired for Italy and its freedom preserved, this statue of His Majesty, blinking from the splendor of gold here on this tallest column for his eternal glory erect and dedicate, on the first day of the month of August, in the eleventh indiction in the fifth year after the consulate of His Piousness.
The precise occasion for this signal honour is unknown, though Phocas had formally donated the Pantheon to Pope Boniface IV, who rededicated it to all the martyrs and Mary (Sancta Maria ad Martyres). Atop the column's capital was erected by Smaragdus, the Exarch of Ravenna, a "dazzling" gilded statue of Phocas (which probably only briefly stood there). Rather than a demonstration to mark papal gratitude as it is sometimes casually declared to be, the gilded statue on its column was more likely an emblem of the imperial sovereignty over Rome, which was rapidly fading under pressure from the Lombards, and a personal mark of gratitude from Smaragdus, who had been recalled by Phocas from a long exile and was indebted to the Emperor for retrieving his position of power at Ravenna.
In October 610, Phocas was overthrown and killed; his statues everywhere were overthrown.
The monument remains today in its original location (in situ). Its isolated, free-standing position among the ruins has always made it a landmark in the Forum, and it often appears in vedute and engravings. The rise in ground level due to silt and debris had completely buried the socle by the time Giuseppe Vasi and Giambattista Piranesi made engravings and etchings of the column in the mid-18th century. The square foundation of brick (illustration, right) was not originally visible, the present level of the Forum not having been excavated down to its earlier Augustan paving until the 19th century.
The Lapis Niger (Latin, "Black Stone") is an ancient shrine in the Roman Forum. Together with the associated Vulcanal (a sanctuary to Vulcan) it constitutes the only surviving remnants of the old Comitium, an early assembly area that preceded the Forum and is thought to derive from an archaic cult site of the 7th or 8th century BC.
The black marble paving (1st century BC) and modern concrete enclosure (early 20th century) of the Lapis Niger overlie an ancient altar and a stone block with one of the earliest known Latin inscriptions (c. 570–550 BC). The superstructure monument and shrine may have been built by Julius Caesar during his reorganization of the Forum and Comitium space. Alternatively, this may have been done a generation earlier by Sulla during one of his construction projects around the Curia Hostilia. The site was rediscovered and excavated from 1899 to 1905 by Italian archaeologist Giacomo Boni.
Mentioned in many ancient descriptions of the Forum dating back to the Roman Republic and the early days of the Roman Empire, the significance of the Lapis Niger shrine was obscure and mysterious to later Romans, but it was always discussed as a place of great sacredness and significance. It is constructed on top of a sacred spot consisting of much older artifacts found about 5 ft (1.5 m) below the present ground level. The name "black stone" may have originally referred to the black stone block (one of the earliest known Latin inscriptions) or it may refer to the later black marble paving at the surface. Located in the Comitium in front of the Curia Julia, this structure survived for centuries due to a combination of reverential treatment and overbuilding during the era of the early Roman Empire.
The Arch of Titus (Italian: Arco di Tito; Latin: Arcus Titi) is a 1st-century AD honorific arch, located on the Via Sacra, Rome, just to the south-east of the Roman Forum. It was constructed in c. 81 AD by the Emperor Domitian shortly after the death of his older brother Titus to commemorate Titus's official deification or consecratio and the victory of Titus together with their father, Vespasian, over the Jewish rebellion in Judaea. The arch contains panels depicting the triumphal procession celebrated in 71 AD after the Roman victory culminating in the fall of Jerusalem, and provides one of the few contemporary depictions of artifacts of Herod's Temple. It became a symbol of the Jewish diaspora, and the menorah depicted on the arch served as the model for the menorah used as the emblem of the state of Israel.The arch has provided the general model for many triumphal arches erected since the 16th century—perhaps most famously it is the inspiration for the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, France.
The Comitium (Italian: Comizio) was the original open-air public meeting space of Ancient Rome, and had major religious and prophetic significance. The name comes from the Latin word for "assembly". The Comitium location at the northwest corner of the Roman Forum was later lost in the city's growth and development, but was rediscovered and excavated by archeologists at the turn of the twentieth century. Some of Rome's earliest monuments; including the speaking platform known as the Rostra, the Column Maenia, the Graecostasis and the Tabula valeria were part of or associated with the Comitium.
The Comitium was the location for much of the political and judicial activity of Rome. It was the meeting place of the Curiate Assembly, the earliest Popular assembly of organised voting divisions of the republic. Later, during the Roman Republic, the Tribal Assembly and Plebeian Assembly met there. The Comitium was in front of the meeting house of the Roman Senate - the still-existing Curia Julia and its predecessor, the Curia Hostilia. The curia is associated with the comitium by both Livy and Cicero.Most Roman cities had a similar comitium for public meetings (L. contiones) or assemblies for election], councils and tribunals. As part of the forum, where temples, commerce, judicial, and city buildings were located, the comitium was the center of political activity. Romans tended to organize their needs into specific locations within the city. As the city grew, the larger Comitia Centuriata met on the Campus Martius, outside the city walls. The comitium remained of importance for formal elections of some magistrates; however, as their importance decayed after the end of the republic, so did the importance of the comitium.
For the Italian city, see Santi Cosma e Damiano, Lazio.
The basilica of Santi Cosma e Damiano is a church in the Roman Forum, parts of which incorporate original Roman buildings. The circular building at the entrance onto the Forum (not used today) was built in the early 4th century as a Roman temple, thought to have been dedicated to Valerius Romulus, deified son of the emperor Maxentius. The main building was perhaps the library of an imperial forum.
It became a church in 527 and contains important but much restored early Christian art, especially in its mosaics.
Today it is one of the ancient churches called tituli, of which cardinals are patrons as cardinal-deacons: the current Cardinal Deacon of the Titulus Ss. Cosmae et Damiani is Beniamino Stella, created Cardinal on 22 February 2014. The basilica, devoted to the two Arabian Christian brothers, doctors, martyrs and saints Cosmas and Damian, is located in the Forum of Vespasian, also known as the Forum of Peace.
The Temple of Vesta (Latin Aedes Vestae; Italian: Tempio di Vesta) is an ancient edifice in Rome, Italy, located in the Roman Forum near the Regia and the House of the Vestal Virgins. The temple's most recognizable feature is its circular footprint. Since the worship of Vesta began in private homes, the architecture seems to be a reminder of its history. The extant temple used Greek architecture with Corinthian columns, marble, and a central cella. The remaining structure indicates that there were twenty Corinthian columns built on a podium fifteen meters in diameter. The roof probably had a vent at the apex to allow smoke release.
Curia (Latin plural curiae) in ancient Rome referred to one of the original groupings of the citizenry, eventually numbering 30, and later every Roman citizen was presumed to belong to one. While they originally likely had wider powers, they came to meet for only a few purposes by the end of the Republic: to confirm the election of magistrates with imperium, to witness the installation of priests, the making of wills, and to carry out certain adoptions.
The term is more broadly used to designate an assembly, council, or court, in which public, official, or religious issues are discussed and decided. Lesser curiae existed for other purposes. The word curia also came to denote the places of assembly, especially of the senate. Similar institutions existed in other towns and cities of Italy.
In medieval times, a king's council was often referred to as a curia. Today, the most famous curia is the Curia of the Roman Catholic Church, which assists the Roman Pontiff in the hierarchical government of the Church.
The rostra (Italian: Rostri) was a large platform built in the city of Rome that stood during the republican and imperial periods. Speakers would stand on the rostra and face the north side of the comitium towards the senate house and deliver orations to those assembled in between. It is often referred to as a suggestus or tribunal, the first form of which dates back to the Roman Kingdom, the Vulcanal.It derives its name from the six rostra (plural of rostrum, a warship's ram) which were captured during the victory at Antium in 338 BC and mounted to its side. Originally, the term meant a single structure located within the Comitium space near the Forum and usually associated with the Senate Curia. It began to be referred to as the Rostra Vetera ("Elder Rostra") in the imperial age to distinguish it from other later platforms designed for similar purposes which took the name "Rostra" along with its builder's name or the person it honored.
The Curia Julia (Latin: Curia Iulia, Italian: Curia Iulia) is the third named Curia, or Senate House, in the ancient city of Rome. It was built in 44 BC, when Julius Caesar replaced Faustus Cornelius Sulla's reconstructed Curia Cornelia, which itself had replaced the Curia Hostilia. Caesar did so to redesign both spaces within the Comitium and the Roman Forum. The alterations within the Comitium reduced the prominence of the Senate and cleared the original space. The work, however, was interrupted by Caesar's assassination at the Theatre of Pompey, where the Senate had been meeting temporarily while the work was completed. The project was eventually finished by Caesar's successor, Augustus Caesar, in 29 BC.The Curia Julia is one of a handful of Roman structures that survive mostly intact. This is due to its conversion into the basilica of Sant'Adriano al Foro in the 7th century and several later restorations. However, the roof, the upper elevations of the side walls and the rear façade are modern and date from the remodeling of the deconsecrated church, in the 1930s.
The Arch of Septimius Severus (Italian: Arco di Settimio Severo) at the northwest end of the Roman Forum is a white marble triumphal arch dedicated in 203 to commemorate the Parthian victories of Emperor Septimius Severus and his two sons, Caracalla and Geta, in the two campaigns against the Parthians of 194/195 and 197–199.
After the death of Septimius Severus, his sons Caracalla and Geta were initially joint emperors. Caracalla had Geta assassinated in 212; Geta's memorials were destroyed and all images or mentions of him were removed from public buildings and monuments. Accordingly, Geta's image and inscriptions referring to him were removed from the arch.
The House of the Vestal Virgins (Latin: Atrium Vestae; Italian: Casa delle Vestali) was the residence of Vestal Virgins, located behind the circular Temple of Vesta at the eastern edge of the Roman Forum, between the Regia and the Palatine Hill. The domus publica, where the Pontifex Maximus dwelled, was located near the Atrium until that role was assumed by the emperors.
The Atrium Vestae was a three-story 50-room palace in the ancient Roman Forum built around an elegant elongated atrium or court with a double pool. To the very east is an open vaulted hall with a statue of Numa Pompilius, the mythological founder of the cult.
The complex lay at the foot of the Palatine Hill, where a sacred grove that was slowly encroached upon lingered into Imperial times, when all was swept away by the Fire of Rome in 64. The House of the Vestals was rebuilt several times in the course of the Empire. After the dissolution of the College of the Vestals and the introduction of compulsory Christianity by Theodosius I in the late 4th century AD, the House of the Vestals continued to serve as a residence building. It now housed officials of the imperial court, and subsequently the papal court. Archaeological finds from this period include a hoard of 397 gold coins from the 5th century and another 830 Anglo-Saxon coins dating from the 9th and 10th centuries. The site was abandoned in the 11th/12th century.
Today, remains of the statues of the Vestals can be seen in the Atrium Vestae.
The sacred fire of Vesta was a sacred eternal flame in ancient Rome. The Vestal Virgins, originally numbering two, later four and eventually six, were selected by lot and served for thirty years, tending the holy fire and performing other rituals connected to domestic life—among them were the ritual sweeping of the temple on June 15 and the preparation of food for certain festivals. By analogy, they also tended the life and soul of the city and of the body politic through the sacred fire of Vesta. The eternal burning of the sacred fire was a sign that determined eternal Rome.
The fire was renewed every year on the Kalends of March. Plutarch's (c. 1st century AD) Parallel Lives records the Vestal Virgins use of burning mirrors to relight the fire:
If it (the fire) happens by any accident to be put out ... it is not to be lighted again from another fire, but new fire is to be gained by drawing a pure and unpolluted flame from the sunbeams. They kindle it generally with concave vessels of brass, formed by hollowing out an isosceles rectangular triangle, whose lines from the circumference meet in one single point. This being placed against the sun, causes its rays to converge in the centre, which, by reflection, acquiring the force and activity of fire, rarefy the air, and immediately kindle such light and dry matter as they think fit to apply. (tr. Langhorne 1821 1: 195)
Allowing the sacred fire to die out was a serious dereliction of duty: it suggested that the goddess had withdrawn her protection from the city. Vestals guilty of this offence were punished by a scourging or beating.The sacred fire burned in Vesta's circular temple, built in the Roman Forum below the Palatine Hill in pre-republican times. Among other sacred objects in the temple was the Palladium, a statue of Pallas Athena supposedly brought by Aeneas from Troy. The temple burned completely on at least four occasions and caught fire on two others. It was last rebuilt in AD 191 on the orders of Julia Domna, the wife of the emperor Septimius Severus.
The rites of Vesta ended in 394 by order of the Christian emperor Theodosius I in his campaign to eliminate pagan practices in Rome. The fire was extinguished and the College of Vestals disbanded.
The Temple of Venus and Roma (Latin: Templum Veneris et Romae) is thought to have been the largest temple in Ancient Rome. Located on the Velian Hill, between the eastern edge of the Forum Romanum and the Colosseum, it was dedicated to the goddesses Venus Felix ("Venus the Bringer of Good Fortune") and Roma Aeterna ("Eternal Rome"). The architect was the emperor Hadrian and construction began in 121. It was officially inaugurated by Hadrian in 135, and finished in 141 under Antoninus Pius. Damaged by fire in 307, it was restored with alterations by the emperor Maxentius.
The Temple of Castor and Pollux (Italian: Tempio dei Dioscuri) is an ancient temple in the Roman Forum, Rome, central Italy. It was originally built in gratitude for victory at the Battle of Lake Regillus (495 BC). Castor and Pollux (Greek Polydeuces) were the Dioscuri, the "twins" of Gemini, the twin sons of Zeus (Jupiter) and Leda. Their cult came to Rome from Greece via Magna Graecia and the Greek culture of Southern Italy.The Roman temple is one of a number of known Dioscuri temples remaining from antiquity.
The Temple of Saturn (Latin: Templum Saturni or Aedes Saturni; Italian: Tempio di Saturno) was an ancient Roman temple to the god Saturn. Its ruins stand at the foot of the Capitoline Hill at the western end of the Roman Forum. The original dedication of the temple is traditionally dated to 497 BC, but ancient writers disagreed greatly about the history of this site.
The Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine (Italian: Basilica di Massenzio), sometimes known as the Basilica Nova—meaning "new basilica"—or Basilica of Maxentius, is an ancient building in the Roman Forum, Rome, Italy. It was the largest building in the Forum, and the last Roman basilica built in the city.
The Basilica Julia (Italian: Basilica Giulia) was a structure that once stood in the Roman Forum. It was a large, ornate, public building used for meetings and other official business during the early Roman Empire. Its ruins have been excavated. What is left from its classical period are mostly foundations, floors, a small back corner wall with a few arches that are part of both the original building and later Imperial reconstructions and a single column from its first building phase.
The Basilica Julia was built on the site of the earlier Basilica Sempronia (170 BC) along the south side of the Forum, opposite the Basilica Aemilia. It was initially dedicated in 46 BC by Julius Caesar, with building costs paid from the spoils of the Gallic War, and was completed by Augustus, who named the building after his adoptive father.
The Arch of Augustus (Italian: Arco di Augusto) was the triumphal arch of Augustus, located in the Roman Forum. It spanned the Via Sacra, between the Temple of Castor and Pollux and the Temple of Caesar, near the Temple of Vesta, closing off the eastern end of the Forum. It can be regarded as the first permanent three-bayed arch ever built in Rome.The archaeological evidence shows the existence of a three-bayed arch measuring 17,75 x 5.25 meters between the Temple of Caesar and the Temple of Castor and Pollux, although only the travertine foundations of the structure remain.Ancient sources mention arches erected in honor of Augustus in the Forum on two occasions: the victory over Antony and Cleopatra in 31 BCE, and the
recovery of the standards lost to the Parthians in 20 BCE.
The Temple of Vespasian and Titus (Latin: Templum divi Vespasiani, Italian: Tempio di Vespasiano) is located in Rome at the western end of the Roman Forum between the Temple of Concordia and the Temple of Saturn. It is dedicated to the deified Vespasian and his son, the deified Titus. It was begun by Titus in 79 after Vespasian's death and Titus's succession. Titus’ brother, Domitian, completed and dedicated the temple to Titus and Vespasian in approximately 87.
The Milliarium Aureum (Classical Latin: [miːllɪˈaːrɪ.ũː ˈau̯rɛ.ũː]; Italian: Miliario Aureo), also known by the translation Golden Milestone, was a monument, probably of marble or gilded bronze, erected by the Emperor Caesar Augustus near the Temple of Saturn in the central Forum of Ancient Rome. All roads were considered to begin at this monument and all distances in the Roman Empire were measured relative to it. On it perhaps were listed all the major cities in the empire and distances to them, though the monument's precise location and inscription remain matters of debate among historians.
According to Philip Schaff, the phrase "all roads lead to Rome" is a reference to the Milliarium Aureum—the specific point to which all roads were said to lead. A marble structure speculated to be the base of the milestone is present in the Roman Forum.
The Temple of Concord (Latin: Aedes Concordiae) in the ancient city of Rome refers to a series of shrines or temples dedicated to the Roman goddess Concordia, and erected at the western end of the Roman Forum. The earliest temple is believed to have been vowed by Marcus Furius Camillus in 367 BC, but it may not have been built until 218 BC by L. Manlius. The temple was rebuilt in 121 BC, and again by the future emperor Tiberius between 7 BC and AD 10.
The Regia was a two-part structure in Ancient Rome lying along the Sacra Via at the edge of the Roman Forum that originally served as the residence or one of the main headquarters of kings of Rome and later as the office of the Pontifex Maximus, the highest religious official of Rome. It occupied a triangular patch of terrain between the Temple of Vesta, the Temple of Divus Julius and Temple of Antoninus and Faustina. Only the foundations of Republican/Imperial Regia remain. Like the Curia it was destroyed and rebuilt several times, as far back as the Roman monarchy. Studies have found multiple layers of similar buildings with more regular features, prompting the theory that this "Republican Regia" was to have a different use.
The Temple of Caesar or Temple of Divus Iulius (Latin: Templum Divi Iuli; Italian: Tempio del Divo Giulio), also known as Temple of the Deified Julius Caesar, delubrum, heroon or Temple of the Comet Star, is an ancient structure in the Roman Forum of Rome, Italy, located near the Regia and the Temple of Vesta.
The Temple of Jupiter Feretrius (Latin: Aedes Iuppiter Feretrius) was the first temple ever built in Rome (the second was Etruscan and became known as the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus). Its site is uncertain but is thought to have been on the Capitoline Hill.
It was said to have been dedicated to the god Jupiter by Romulus after his defeat of Acro, king of the Ceninensi, in 752–751 BC. The origin of the epithet 'Feretrius' is unclear and may relate to one of two Latin verbs - 'ferire' (making it mean 'he who strikes', since the spolia opima was offered there) or 'ferre' (making it mean 'he to whom [the spolia opima] are brought').
According to Cornelius Nepos, by the middle years of the first century BC the temple had lost its roof after many years of neglect. As a result, the emperor Augustus decided to rebuild it on the suggestion of Titus Pomponius Atticus, the wealthy equestrian most famous for being the friend and confidant of Cicero. Augustus subsequently included the temple in his autobiography, the Res Gestae Divi Augusti, within the list of monuments and temples in Rome that he paid to have rebuilt. If still in use by the 4th-century, it would have been closed during the persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire.
The Temple of Antoninus and Faustina is an ancient Roman temple in Rome, which was later converted into a Roman Catholic church, the Chiesa di San Lorenzo in Miranda or simply "San Lorenzo in Miranda". It is located in the Forum Romanum, on the Via Sacra, opposite the Regia.
The main road to the Roman Capitol, the Clivus Capitolinus ("Capitoline Rise") starts at the head of the Forum Romanum beside the Arch of Tiberius as a continuation of the Via Sacra; proceeding around the Temple of Saturn and turning to the south in front of the Portico Dii Consentes, it then climbs up the slope of the Capitoline Hill to the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus at its summit. This was traditionally the last and culminating portion of all Roman triumphs.The street is significant as one of the oldest roads in Rome as well as its central location around temples and judicial offices leading to the largest and most important of the Republican Temples. Julius Caesar is said to have climbed this road on his knees to offset a bad omen during his triumph.The earliest history of the road as well as the hill itself is not completely clear as much of Rome's earliest records were destroyed in a sacking of the city. The road may have been part of the original route to the Sabine settlement altered when the Temple of Saturn was built. The hills of Rome have an extensive amount of construction built on top of ancient Etruscan stones that can be seen at the rear of the remaining chambers of the Portico Dii Consentes.
The Umbilicus Urbis Romae (Classical Latin: [ʊmbɪˈliːkʊs ˈʊrbɪs ˈroːmae̯])—"Navel of the City of Rome"—was the symbolic centre of the city from which, and to which, all distances in Ancient Rome were measured. It was situated in the Roman Forum where its remnants can still be seen. These remains are located beside the Arch of Septimius Severus and the Vulcanal, behind the Rostra. Originally covered in marble, the Umbilicus is now a forlorn-looking brick core some 2 metres high and 4.45 metres in diameter.
Santa Maria Antiqua (English: Ancient Church of Saint Mary) is a Roman Catholic Marian church in Rome, Italy, built in the 5th century in the Forum Romanum, and for a long time the monumental access to the Palatine imperial palaces.
Located at the foot of the Palatine Hill, Santa Maria Antiqua is the oldest Christian monument in the Roman Forum. The church contains the earliest Roman depiction of Santa Maria Regina, the Virgin Mary as a Queen, from the 6th century.
The Basilica Aemilia (Italian: Basilica Emilia) was a civil basilica in the Roman Forum, in Rome, Italy. Today only the plan and some rebuilt elements can be seen. The Basilica was 100 meters (328 ft) long and about 30 meters (98 ft) wide. Along the sides were two orders of 16 arches, and it was accessed through one of three entrances.
The Lacus Curtius ("Lake of Curtius") was a mysterious pit or pool in the ground in the Forum Romanum. The area where the Forum would later be built was originally likely a lake, as the area it was in is known to have been surrounded by brooks and marshes. One part of the area was never drained, but gradually became smaller until only a basin, known as the Lacus Curtius, was left. Its nature and significance in Rome's early history is uncertain, and several conflicting stories exist about its history.
The name of the place is likely connected with the Curtia gens, a very old Roman Family with Sabine origins.
The Basilica Sempronia was a structure in the Roman Forum during the Republican period. It was one of four basilicas to make up the original Roman Forum alongside the Basilica Porcia, Basilica Aemilia, and Basilica Opimia, and was the third built. Although excavations have revealed remains of the basilica as well as the structures that originally stood in its place, none of them are visible from the Roman Forum.
The Shrine of Vulcan (Italian: Volcanale), or Vulcanal, or Volcanal, was an 8th-century BC sacred precinct on the future site of the Roman Forum in Rome, modern Italy. Dedicated to Vulcan, the Roman god of fire, it was traditionally considered to commemorate the spot where the legendary figures Romulus and Tatius concluded the peace treaty between the tribes known as the Latins — on the Palatine Hill — and the Sabines — on the Quirinal and Esquiline. This famous merger of the hill-villages was said to be the foundation of the Roman state.
The Arch of Tiberius ("'Arcus Tiberi'") was a triumphal arch built in 16 AD in the Forum Romanum to celebrate the recovery of the eagle standards that had been lost to Germanic tribes by Varus in 9. The Roman general Germanicus had recovered the standards in 15 or 16.The Arch spanned the Vicus Jugarius between the Temple of Saturn and the Basilica Julia. It was dedicated to the emperor Tiberius because in the Imperial period only the emperor could celebrate a Triumph, so the victory of Germanicus was celebrated as a triumph of Tiberius. Very little is known about this monument. It is mentioned in literary sources, and it is known from a relief on the Arch of Constantine. It appears to have been a single arch, like the later Arch of Titus, flanked by two columns of the Corinthian order. The foundations of the Arch have been found on the Forum, but nothing is visible.
The Shrine of Venus Cloacina (Sacellum Cloacinae or Sacrum Cloacina) — the "Shrine of Venus of the Sewer" — was a small sanctuary on the Roman Forum, honoring the divinity of the Cloaca Maxima, the spirit of the "Great Drain" or Sewer of Rome. Cloacina, the Etruscan goddess associated with the entrance to the sewer system, was later identified with the Roman goddess Venus for unknown reasons, according to Pliny the Elder.
The Colossus of Constantine (Italian: Statua Colossale di Costantino I) was a huge acrolithic statue of the late Roman emperor Constantine the Great (c. 280–337) that once occupied the west apse of the Basilica of Maxentius near the Forum Romanum in Rome. Portions of the Colossus now reside in the Courtyard of the Palazzo dei Conservatori of the Musei Capitolini, on the Capitoline Hill, above the west end of the Forum.
The Lacus Iuturnae — or Lacus Juturnae or Spring of Juturna — is the name of a formal pool built by the Romans near a spring or well in the Roman Forum. The pool was part of a shrine dedicated to the water nymph Juturna, and the name Lacus Iuturnae is also used for the spring and the shrine, both next to the pool.The site was initially excavated by Giacomo Boni in the early twentieth century. Excavations from the 1980s onwards were supervised by Eva Margareta Steinby.
Santi Sergio e Bacco al Foro Romano (Italian: Saints Sergius and Bacchus at the Roman Forum) also called Santi Sergio e Bacco sub Capitolio (Saints Sergius and Bacchus under the Capitoline) was an ancient titular church in Rome, now lost. Located in the ruins of the Roman Forum, it had been one of the ancient diaconiae of the city and a collect church for one of the station days of Lent, but it was demolished in the sixteenth century.
The Porticus Deorum Consentium (Italian: Portico degli Dei Consenti; English: Portico of the Harmonious Gods), sometimes known as the Area of the Dii Consentes, is an ancient structure located at the bottom of the ancient Roman road that leads up to the Capitol in Rome, Italy. The Clivus Capitolinus ("Capitoline Rise") turned sharply at the head of the Forum Romanum where this portico of marble and composite material was discovered and re-erected in 1835.
It was last rebuilt in 367 AD and was thus the last functioning pagan shrine in the Forum (such shrines had been forbidden by law more than a decade earlier). The Portico housed twelve recessed rooms where it is believed the judicial clerks of the Capitoline Assent held their offices.
The Plutei of Trajan (Latin Plutei Traiani) are carved stone balustrades built for Trajan. They are on display inside the Curia Julia on the Forum Romanum today, but are not part of the original structure.
It is unknown exactly where Trajan erected them. They are believed to have been built either on the edge of the rostrum or on the sides of the black pavement marking the underground "Tomb of Romulus". In spite of this uncertainty, they are of great historical value because the carvings show the full length of both sides of the forum at the time they were erected.
Sant'Adriano al Foro was a church in Rome, formerly in the Curia Julia in the Forum Romanum and a cardinal-deaconry (a titular church for a Cardinal-deacon).
The Graecostasis was a platform in the Comitium near the Roman Forum, located to the west of the Rostra. The name refers to the Greek ambassadors for whom the platform was originally built after the Roman Republic conquered Greece. Placed at the southwest end of the Comitium, the platform was the designated spot for all representatives of foreign nations and dignitaries from the republic and empire's domain.
Visiting outsiders were not permitted within the Senate House or Curia and instead may have stood on this platform while waiting to meet with senators or to hear orations from the Rostra to its east side. Although one scholar has disputed this interpretation and argues that it may have served as a viewing platform for entertainment.
The Porticus Margaritaria was an ancient building in the city of Rome known only from the Notitia et Curiosum. The complex was seemingly commercial in nature as numerous inscriptions refer to jewelers (CIL VI.9207, 9221, 9239, 9418, 9419). It was most likely located outside of the Forum Romanum and adjacent to the House of Vestals. Directly across the Sacra Via was the Basilica Nova. To its south-east was the Temple of Venus and Roma and beyond that the Colosseum. Nothing remains of the Porticus Margaritaria except for some sections of foundation and ruins. Jordan (I.2.476) placed the porticus on the boundary of Region VIII, between the Forum Boarium and the Forum Holitorium.
The Temple of Jupiter Stator ("Jupiter the Sustainer") was a sanctuary on the slope of the Capitoline Hill. In Roman legend, it was founded by King Romulus after he pledged to build it during a battle between the Roman army and that of the Sabines.
The altar of Saturn (Latin: Ara Saturni) is an archaic altar dedicated to the god Saturn. Constructed in the sixth century BCE, it continued to be used until the Roman Empire collapsed. It is located in front of the Temple of Saturn in the Roman Forum and its remains were uncovered by Rodolfo Lanciani in 1902.