Tikal

File:Guatemala 074.jpgFile:Temple of the Great Jaguar.jpg

Ruins of major ancient Maya city

Archaeological site

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons category: Tikal

Geographical coordinates: 17.222094444 -89.623613888

Wikipedia

English Tikal

Tikal () (Tik’al in modern Mayan orthography) is the ruin of an ancient city, which was likely to have been called Yax Mutal, found in a rainforest in Guatemala. It is one of the largest archaeological sites and urban centers of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. It is located in the archaeological region of the Petén Basin in what is now northern Guatemala. Situated in the department of El Petén, the site is part of Guatemala's Tikal National Park and in 1979 it was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.Tikal was the capital of a conquest state that became one of the most powerful kingdoms of the ancient Maya. Though monumental architecture at the site dates back as far as the 4th century BC, Tikal reached its apogee during the Classic Period, c. 200 to 900 AD. During this time, the city dominated much of the Maya region politically, economically, and militarily, while interacting with areas throughout Mesoamerica such as the great metropolis of Teotihuacan in t the distant Valley of Mexico. There is evidence that Tikal was conquered by Teotihuacan in the 4th century CE. Following the end of the Late Classic Period, no new major monuments were built at Tikal and there is evidence that elite palaces were burned. These events were coupled with a gradual population decline, culminating with the site's abandonment by the end of the 10th century.

Tikal is the best understood of any of the large lowland Maya cities that stays with their old traditions , with a long dynastic ruler list, the discovery of the tombs of many of the rulers on this list and the investigation of their monuments, temples and palaces.

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German Tikal

Tikal ist eine antike Stadt der Maya in den Regenwäldern des Petén im nördlichen Guatemala mit bemerkenswerten Stufentempeln. Sie war eine der bedeutendsten Städte der klassischen Maya-Periode (3. bis 9. Jahrhundert) und ist eine der am besten erforschten Maya-Städte. Die ersten Siedlungsspuren reichen ins frühe 1. Jahrtausend v. Chr. zurück. Im 2. Jahrhundert begann die eigentliche städtische Entwicklung mit der Errichtung von Tempeln, Stelen und Palast-Tempel-Komplexen. Ein erster Höhepunkt wurde im 5. Jahrhundert erreicht, als eine mächtige Herrscherdynastie einen Kleinstaat nach dem anderen in der Nachbarschaft unterwarf und zu Vasallenkönigreichen machte, woraus ein langjähriger Konflikt mit dem mächtigen Nachbarstaat Calakmul entstand. Einen zweiten Höhepunkt erlebte Tikal im 8. Jahrhundert, nachdem Calakmul als Rivale besiegt worden war. Im frühen 9. Jahrhundert schwand die Macht von Tikal, die Bautätigkeit hörte auf. Spätestens im 10. Jahrhundert war die Stadt vollständig verlassen.

Source: Tikal

Polish Tikál

Tikál, Tical – ruiny miasta Majów położone na terenie Gwatemali w departamencie Petén, w gminie San Andrés, na północny wschód od jeziora Petén Itzá.

W 1979 stanowisko archeologiczne w Tikál wraz z otaczającym je parkiem narodowym zostało wpisane na listę światowego dziedzictwa UNESCO.

Source: Tikál

Russian Тикаль

Тикаль — одно из крупнейших городищ майя, столица Мутульского царства. Расположено в провинции Эль-Петен Гватемалы.

Пика мощи Тикаль достиг в классический период. В центре города расположено шесть высоких ступенчатых пирамид с храмами на вершинах, пирамиды меньшего размера находятся в Тикале во множестве.

Source: Тикаль

Ukrainian Тікаль

Тікаль (Tikal або Tik'al) — найбільше із зруйнованих стародавніх доколумбівських міст майя, розквіт якого припав на 700 рік нашої ери., розташоване у департаменті Ель-Петен (El Petén, Гватемала). Зараз є частиною гватемальського Національного парку Тікаль, який був створений у 1955 році, пам'яткою світової спадщини ЮНЕСКО, дуже популярною серед туристів. Найближчі великі міста — Флорес і Санта-Єлена, на відстані приблизно 30 кілометрів.

Source: Тікаль

cs Tikal

Tikal jsou nejrozlehlejší ruiny starověkého mayského města. Nacházejí se na severu Guatemaly v departementu Petén v Mezoamerice. Celá oblast byla vyhlášena jedním z 21 guatemalských národních parků a je zapsána na seznamu světového dědictví UNESCO.

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Spanish Tikal

Tikal (o Tik'al, de acuerdo con la ortografía maya moderna) es uno de los mayores yacimientos arqueológicos y centros urbanos de la civilización maya precolombina. Está situado en el municipio de Flores, en el departamento de Petén, en el territorio actual de la República de Guatemala y forma parte del parque nacional Tikal, que fue declarado Patrimonio de la Humanidad, por Unesco, en 1979.[1]​ Según los glifos encontrados en el yacimiento, su nombre maya habría sido Yax Mutul.[2]​

Tikal fue la capital de un estado beligerante, que se convirtió en uno de los reinos más poderosos de los antiguos mayas.[3]​[4]​

Aunque la arquitectura monumental del sitio se remonta hasta el siglo iv a. C., Tikal alcanzó su apogeo durante el Período Clásico, entre el 200 y el 900 d. C. Durante este tiempo, la ciudad dominó gran parte de la región maya, en el ámbito político, económico y militar; mantenía vínculos con otras regiones, a lo largo de Mesoamérica, incluso con la gran metrópoli de Teotihuacan, en el lejano Valle de México.[5]​

Después del Clásico Tardío, no se construyeron monumentos mayores.

Con una larga lista de gobernantes dinásticos, el descubrimiento de muchas de sus respectivas tumbas y el estudio de sus monumentos, templos y palacios, Tikal es probablemente la mejor comprendida de las grandes ciudades mayas de las tierras bajas de Mesoamérica.[6]​

Source: Tikal

French Tikal

Tikal (ou Tik’al, selon l’orthographe maya moderne) est l'un des plus grands sites archéologiques et centres urbains de la civilisation maya précolombienne. Situé dans le département du Petén (qui constitue aujourd'hui le nord du Guatemala), le site fait partie du parc national de Tikal du Guatemala, créé le 26 mai 1955. En 1979, il a été inscrit au Patrimoine mondial de l’UNESCO.

Tikal était la capitale d'un État conquérant, qui fut l'un des royaumes les plus puissants des anciens Mayas. Bien que l'architecture monumentale du site remonte jusqu’au IVe siècle av. J.-C., Tikal n’atteignit son apogée qu’au cours de la période classique (entre 200 et 900 de notre ère). À cette époque, la ville dominait politiquement, économiquement et militairement une grande partie de la région maya, tout en interagissant avec d’autres régions de toute la Mésoamérique (comme la grande métropole de Teotihuacan, dans la lointaine vallée de Mexico), et il est prouvé que Tikal fut conquise par Teotihuacan au IVe siècle de notre ère. Après la fin de la période classique tardive, aucun nouveau monument important n’a été construit à Tikal, et les palais de l'élite ont été brûlés. Ces événements se sont déroulés parallèlement au déclin démographique progressif, culminant avec l'abandon du site à la fin du Xe siècle.

Tikal est l’une des mieux connues des grandes cités mayas des basses terres, grâce à la transcription d’une longue liste de rois (dont on a découvert la plupart les tombes), ainsi que par leurs sculptures monumentales, leurs temples et leurs palais.

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Italian Tikal

Tikal è la più estesa delle antiche città in rovina della civiltà Maya. Tikal si trova in Guatemala nel dipartimento di Petén. Attualmente fa parte del Parco nazionale di Tikal, sito segnalato dall'UNESCO come uno dei siti Patrimoni dell'Umanità. Tikal è una popolare meta turistica del Guatemala.

Le città più vicine sono Flores e Santa Elena, a circa 30 chilometri di distanza.

Source: Tikal

Japanese ティカル

ティカル(Tikal)は、グアテマラのペテン低地にあった古典期マヤの大都市である。マヤ文明の政治、経済中心都市として紀元4世紀から9世紀ごろにかけて繁栄を極めた。ティカルの遺跡は1979年に世界遺産の複合遺産に登録された。

Source: ティカル

pt Tikal

Tikal (/ tiˈkɑːl /) (Tik'al na ortografia maia moderna) é a ruína de uma cidade antiga, que provavelmente se chamava Yax Mutal, encontrada em uma floresta tropical na Guatemala. É um dos maiores sítios arqueológicos e centros urbanos da civilização maia pré-colombiana. Ele está localizado na região arqueológica da Bacia de Petén, onde hoje fica o norte da Guatemala. Situado no departamento de El Petén, o local faz parte do Parque Nacional Tikal da Guatemala e em 1979 foi declarado Patrimônio Mundial da UNESCO.Tikal foi a capital de um estado de conquista que se tornou um dos reinos mais poderosos dos antigos maias. Embora a arquitetura monumental do local remonte ao século IV a.C., Tikal atingiu seu apogeu durante o período clássico (c. 200–900 a.C.). Durante esse tempo, a cidade dominou grande parte da região maia política, econômica e militarmente, enquanto interagia com áreas da Mesoamérica, como a grande metrópole de Teotihuacan, no distante vale do México. Há evidências de que Tikal foi conquistada por Teotihuacan no século IV a.C.. Após o final do período clássico tardio, nenhum novo grande monumento foi construído em Tikal e há evidências de que palácios da elite foram queimados. Esses eventos foram associados a um declínio gradual da população, culminando com o abandono do local no final do século X.

Tikal é a mais bem compreendida de qualquer uma das grandes cidades maias da planície, com uma longa lista de governantes dinásticos, a descoberta das tumbas de muitos dos governantes desta lista e a investigação de seus monumentos, templos e palácios.

Source: Tikal

zh 蒂卡尔

蒂卡尔(Tikal,现代玛雅语言正写法中写为Tik'al,古时可能叫做Yax Mutal)是前哥伦布时期玛雅文明中最大的遗弃都市之一。它坐落于危地马拉佩腾省的雨林中,北纬17°13′19″ 西经89°37′22″。蒂卡尔位于危地马拉的蒂卡尔国家公园,并於1979年成为世界遗产。

蒂卡尔曾是古代玛雅时期最强盛国家之一的首都。蒂卡尔的纪念碑可追溯至公元前4世纪,而它在约公元200年到900年间到达了顶峰。在这段期间,玛雅城邦从政治、经济、军事上控制了玛雅地区,同时它也和位于中部美洲墨西哥谷的特奧蒂瓦坎等大都市。有证据显示蒂卡尔在4世纪时遭到特奧蒂瓦坎的占领。後经典时期结束後,蒂卡尔没有再出现新的纪念碑,宫殿也被烧毁。这些事件和人口的逐步下降一起,导致10世纪末时蒂卡尔遭到废弃,这也是古典期玛雅文明崩溃的一部分。

蒂卡尔是低地玛雅城邦中探索程度最高的城邦,它有着长长的统治者列表,许多统治者的陵墓、纪念碑、神庙和宫殿。

Source: 蒂卡尔

Wikivoyage

English Tikal (Yax Mutal)

The preeminent Maya city of the Classic Periods and lowlands. Tikal was a political and cultural superpower in its time, extending its influence far beyond.

SourceMaya civilization (en.wikivoyage.org)
Last Edit2019-07-24

Places located in Tikal

Mundo Perdido

The Mundo Perdido (Spanish for "Lost World") is the largest ceremonial complex dating from the Preclassic period at the ancient Maya city of Tikal, in the Petén Department of northern Guatemala. The complex was organised as a large E-Group astronomical complex consisting of a pyramid aligned with a platform to the east that supported three temples. The Mundo Perdido complex was rebuilt many times over the course of its history. By AD 250–300 its architectural style was influenced by the great metropolis of Teotihuacan in the Valley of Mexico, including the use of the talud-tablero form. During the Early Classic period (c. 250–600) the Mundo Perdido became one of the twin foci of the city, the other being the North Acropolis. From AD 250 to 378 it may have served as the royal necropolis. The Mundo Perdido complex was given its name by the archaeologists of the University of Pennsylvania.The large plaza centred upon the Lost World Pyramid (5C-54) and the ceremonial platform to the west (5C-53) is divided into two clearly demarcated areas referred to as the High Plaza and the Low Plaza. The High Plaza is the area around the Lost World Pyramid. It is closed on the south side by Structures 6C-24 and 6C-25. A range of eight adjoining structures divide the High Plaza from the Plaza of the Seven Temples to the east. On the north side, the Plaza is principally delimited by Structures 5D-77, 5D-45, 5D-46, together with some smaller structures. The Low Plaza lies to the west of the Lost World Pyramid, centred upon Structure 5C-53, a low platform. The Low Plaza is closed on its north side by the Talud-Tablero Temple (5C-49), which is the second largest structure in the whole complex. The complex has a surface area of approximately 60,000 square metres (650,000 sq ft).

Guatemalan archaeologists have made major discoveries in the Mundo Perdido since the 1970s. The National Tikal Project (Proyecto Nacional Tikal) investigated the Mundo Perdido from 1979 until 1985, and partially restored the principal structures of the complex. The Mundo Perdido was the first architectural complex to be built at Tikal in the Preclassic period and the last to be abandoned during the Terminal Classic.

Tikal Temple II

Tikal Temple II (or the Temple of the Masks, alternatively labelled by archaeologists as Tikal Structure 5D-2) is a Mesoamerican pyramid at the Maya archaeological site of Tikal in the Petén Department of northern Guatemala. The temple was built in the Late Classic Period in a style reminiscent of the Early Classic. Temple II is located on the west side of the Great Plaza, opposite Temple I. Temple II was built by the king Jasaw Chan K'awiil I in honour of his wife, Lady Kalajuun Une' Mo'. Temple II had a single wooden sculpted lintel that bears the portrait of a royal woman who may have been the wife of Jasaw Chan K'awiil I, who was entombed beneath Temple I. Lady Kalajuun Une' Mo', whose name means "Twelve Macaw Tails", was also important for being the mother of Jasaw Chan K'awill I's heir. In fact her son Yik'in Chan K'awiil oversaw the completion of Temple II when he became king.Temple II was visited by Modesto Méndez, the governor of Petén, in 1848 on the first expedition to the ruins. Preliminary excavations of Temple II started in 1958. On 21 December 2012, more than 7,000 tourists visited Tikal to celebrate the 2012 phenomenon and the supposed end of the world. Many of these tourists climbed the stairs of the pyramid, causing reported damages.

North Acropolis, Tikal

The North Acropolis of the ancient Maya city of Tikal in Guatemala is an architectural complex that served as a royal necropolis and was a centre for funerary activity for over 1300 years. The acropolis is located near the centre of the city and is one of the most studied of Maya architectural complexes. Excavations were carried out from 1957 to 1969 by the University of Pennsylvania, directed by Edwin M. Shook and William Coe.The first traces of human activity at the site date to approximately 800 BC, with the first structures being built about 350 BC. Around 250 AD the complex underwent a major redevelopment with the construction of a massive basal platform that supported a cluster of temples; this was followed around AD 450 by the addition of a row of four pyramids on a terrace to the south of the main platform.

A number of royal tombs have been excavated that have been identified with named kings, including the tombs of Yax Nuun Ayiin I (ruled AD 379- c. 404), Siyaj Chan K'awiil II (ruled 411-456), Wak Chan K'awiil (ruled 537-562) and "Animal Skull" (ruled c. 593-638). An early tomb in the North Acropolis has been tentatively identified as that of the dynastic founder Yax Ehb' Xook (ruled c. 90).A large number of stone monuments were placed in the North Acropolis. By the 9th century AD these included 43 stelae and 30 altars; 18 of these monuments were sculpted with hieroglyphic texts and royal portraits. A number of these monuments show the influence of the great city of Teotihuacan in the Valley of Mexico.

Tikal Temple I

Tikal Temple I is the designation given to one of the major structures at Tikal, one of the largest cities and archaeological sites of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization in Mesoamerica. It is located in the Petén Basin region of northern Guatemala. It also is known as the Temple of the Great Jaguar because of a lintel that represents a king sitting upon a jaguar throne. An alternative name is the Temple of Ah Cacao, after the ruler buried in the temple. Temple I is a typically Petén-styled limestone stepped pyramid structure that is dated to approximately 732 AD.

Situated at the heart of a World Heritage Site, the temple is surmounted by a characteristic roof comb, a distinctive Maya architectural feature. Building Temple I on the eastern side of the Great Plaza was a significant deviation from the established tradition of building funerary temples just north of the plaza in Tikal's North Acropolis.

Tikal Temple III

Tikal Temple III, also known as the Temple of the Jaguar Priest, was one of the principal temple pyramids at the ancient Maya city of Tikal, in the Petén Department of modern Guatemala. The temple stands approximately 55 metres (180 ft) tall. The summit shrine of Temple III differs from those of the other major temples at Tikal in that it only possesses two rooms instead of the usual three. The pyramid was built in the Late Classic Period, and has been dated to 810 AD using the hieroglyphic text on Stela 24, which was raised at the base of its access stairway. Stela 24 is paired with the damaged Altar 6, in a typical stela-altar pair.Temple III is associated with the little-known king Dark Sun, and it is likely that Temple III is Dark Sun's funerary temple. The construction of Temple III indicated that Tikal was still politically stable at the beginning of the 9th century AD. However, this was the last temple pyramid raised at Tikal and by the end of the 9th century the city had fallen into ruin.Temple III is only partially restored and is closed to the public; it has not been the subject of archaeological investigation.

Tikal Temple V

Tikal Temple V is the name given by archaeologists to one of the major pyramids at Tikal. Tikal is one of the most important archaeological sites of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization and is located in the Petén Department of northern Guatemala.

Temple V stands south of the Central Acropolis and is the mortuary pyramid of an as yet unidentified ruler of the once great city. The temple stands 57 metres (187 ft) high, making it the second tallest structure at Tikal—only Temple IV is taller. The temple has been dated to about AD 700, in the Late Classic period, via radiocarbon analysis and the dating of ceramics associated with the structure places its construction during the reign of Nun Bak Chak in the second half of the 7th century.The architectural style of the pyramid includes features that were popular during the Early Classic period, such as wide balustrades flanking the main stairway and the rounded corners of the temple. These features indicate the continued influence of earlier traditions.

Tikal Temple IV

Tikal Temple IV is a Mesoamerican pyramid in the ruins of the ancient Maya city of Tikal in modern Guatemala. It was one of the tallest and most voluminous buildings in the Maya world. The pyramid was built around 741 AD. Temple IV is located at the western edge of the site core. Two causeways meet at the temple; the Tozzer Causeway runs east to the Great Plaza, while the Maudslay Causeway runs northeast to the Northern Zone. Temple IV is the tallest pre-Columbian structure still standing in the New World, although Teotihuacan's Pyramid of the Sun may once have been taller.The pyramid was built to mark the reign of the 27th king of the Tikal dynasty, Yik'in Chan K'awiil, although it may have been built after his death as his funerary temple. Archaeologists believe that Yik'in Chan K'awiil's tomb lies undiscovered somewhere underneath the temple. The summit shrine faces eastward to the site core, with Temple III visible directly in front and Temple I and Temple II beyond it.

Central Acropolis, Tikal

The Central Acropolis of the ancient Maya city of Tikal is an architectural complex located immediately to the south of the Great Plaza. Tikal is one of the most important archaeological sites of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization and is located in the Petén Department of northern Guatemala. The complex served dual administrative and residential purposes. The Central Acropolis was first established in the Late Preclassic period (c. 350 BC – 250 AD) of Mesoamerican chronology, and it remained in use until approximately 950 AD.The Central Acropolis housed Tikal royal families. From its earliest period of use, the eastern portion of what later became the Central Acropolis was used as a royal residence, and by the Early Classic period (c. 250 – 550 AD) it was the location of an important residential palace complex. The inhabitants of Tikal levelled out the natural bedrock underlying the Central Acropolis at 253 metres (830 ft) above mean sea level, a few meters above the level of the Great Plaza. The bedrock drops off steeply to the east and south of the acropolis.

Nearby

Uaxactún19.0 km
El Zotz19.9 km
Zacpeten26.6 km
Nakum28.4 km
Ixlu28.5 km
Yaxha29.0 km
Lake Petén Itzá32.4 km
Motul de San José36.6 km
Xultun38.9 km
La Blanca40.2 km
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Photos:
Image from Wikimedia Commons under CC-BY-SA-3.0 by Rialfver at nl.wikipedia
Image from Wikimedia Commons under CC BY-SA 2.0 by Dennis Jarvis from Halifax, Canada