former capital city; region of Cambodia
Wikimedia Commons category: Angkor
Angkor (Khmer: អង្គរ pronounced [ʔɑŋ.ˈkɔː], lit. capital city) was the capital city of the Khmer Empire, also known as Yasodharapura (Khmer: យសោធរបុរៈ; Sanskrit: यशोधरपुर) and flourished from approximately the 9th to 15th centuries. The city houses the magnificent Angkor Wat, one of Cambodia's popular tourist attractions.
The word Angkor is derived from the Sanskrit nagara (नगर), meaning "city". The Angkorian period began in AD 802, when the Khmer Hindu monarch Jayavarman II declared himself a "universal monarch" and "god-king", and lasted until the late 14th century, first falling under Ayutthayan suzerainty in 1351. A Khmer rebellion against Siamese authority resulted in the 1431 sacking of Angkor by Ayutthaya, causing its population to migrate south to Longvek.
The ruins of Angkor are located amid forests and farmland north of the Great Lake (Tonlé Sap) and south of the Kulen Hills, near modern-day Siem Reap city (13°24′N, 103°51′E), in Siem Reap Province. The temples of the Angkor area number over one thousand, ranging in scale from nondescript piles of brick rubble scattered through rice fields to the Angkor Wat, said to be the world's largest single religious monument. Many of the temples at Angkor have been restored, and together, they comprise the most significant site of Khmer architecture. Visitors approach two million annually, and the entire expanse, including Angkor Wat and Angkor Thom is collectively protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The popularity of the site among tourists presents multiple challenges to the preservation of the ruins.
In 2007, an international team of researchers using satellite photographs and other modern techniques concluded that Angkor had been the largest pre-industrial city in the world, with an elaborate infrastructure system connecting an urban sprawl of at least 1,000 square kilometres (390 sq mi) to the well-known temples at its core. Angkor is considered to be a "hydraulic city" because it had a complicated water management network, which was used for systematically stabilizing, storing, and dispersing water throughout the area. This network is believed to have been used for irrigation in order to offset the unpredictable monsoon season and to also support the increasing population. Although the size of its population remains a topic of research and debate, newly identified agricultural systems in the Angkor area may have supported between 750,000 and one million people.
Angkor (khmer ក្រុងអង្គរ Krŏng Ângkôr, thailändisch เมืองพระนคร Mueang Phra Nakhon) ist eine Region nahe der Stadt Siem Reap in Kambodscha, die vom 9. bis zum 15. Jahrhundert das Zentrum des historischen Khmer-Königreiches Kambuja (deutsch Khmer-Reich oder Reich der Khmer) bildete.
Weltbekannt wurde Angkor durch die noch heute sichtbaren Zeugnisse der Baukunst der Khmer in Form einzigartiger Tempelanlagen – allen voran durch den Angkor Wat, den größten Tempelkomplex der Welt.
Auf einer Gesamtfläche von mehr als 200 km² wurden nacheinander mehrere Hauptstädte und in deren Zentrum jeweils ein großer Haupttempel errichtet. Bis heute wurden bereits mehr als 1000 Tempel und Heiligtümer unterschiedlicher Größe entdeckt. Es gibt Vermutungen, dass im Großraum von Angkor am Höhepunkt des historischen Königreiches bis zu einer Million Menschen auf etwa 1000 km² gelebt haben könnten.
Ангко́р (кхмер. អង្គរ, Ангко (в пер. с санскр. नगर нагара — «город»)) — область Камбоджи, которая была центром Кхмерской империи, процветавшей примерно с IX по XV века, в которой в настоящее время сохранились руины многочисленных храмов и построек, включая Ангкор-Ват и Ангкор-Тхом — выдающиеся памятники искусства кхмеров, вошедшие в список Всемирного наследия ЮНЕСКО.
Слово «Ангкор» происходит от санскритского «нагара» (नगर), что означает «священный город». Ангкорский период начался в 802 г. н. э., когда кхмерский император Джаяварман II объявил себя «Вселенским монархом» и «Богом-царем», и продолжался до конца XIV века.
Ангкор (кхмер. អង្គរ вимовляється [ʔɑŋ.ˈkɔː] — «місто») — стародавня столиця Кхмерської імперії в 9—15 століттях, розміщена за 240 км від Пномпеня на березі озера Тонлесап, посеред джунглів і є найбільшою пам'яткою Камбоджі.
Залишки Ангкора займають площу близько 200 км² і розтягнуті на 24 км з заходу на схід та на 8 км з півночі на південь. Всього тут збереглося близько 100 палаців і храмів. У 1992 році Ангкор був узятий під егіду ЮНЕСКО.
Воротами для мандрівника, охочого побачити це велике творіння стародавніх архітекторів, служить сучасне місто Сіам Ріап (кхмерською «Перемога над сіамцями»). Цей туристичний центр, що бурхливо розвивається, має міжнародний аеропорт і велику кількість сучасних готелів. Відстань від центру Сіам Ріапа до головного храму комплексу — Ангкор-Ват близько 5 км.
Angkor je jedna z nejvýznamnějších kulturních památek a jedno z nejvýznamnějších archeologických nalezišť v jihovýchodní Asii. V období 9. – 15. století zde leželo hlavní sídlo Khmerské říše a z té doby se zachovalo velké množství památek. Angkor leží v provincii Siem Reap a od roku 1992 je zapsán na seznam světového dědictví UNESCO. Samotný název Angkor je odvozen ze sanskrtského výrazu nagara, znamenající město. Chrámové komplexy chráněné UNESCEM jsou rozmístěny ve 3 lokalitách - ústřední komplex Angkor Vatu a Angkor Thomu a menší areály Roluos a Banteay Srei.
Angkor es una región de Camboya que alojó las sucesivas capitales del Imperio jemer durante su época de esplendor. El denominado Imperio angkoriano dominó el sureste asiático, desde el Mar de China hasta el Golfo de Bengala, entre los siglos IX y XV de nuestra era. Sus monumentos y templos se encuentran cerca de la actual Ciudad de Siem Riep, Provincia de Siem Riep, Camboya, y fueron declarados Patrimonio de la Humanidad por la Unesco en el año 1992.
Solo recientemente esta área ha sido recuperada de la selva, con la excepción de su templo más importante, el templo de Angkor Wat, que aunque dedicado originalmente al dios hindú Vishnú, nunca llegó a abandonarse, siendo mantenido desde hace siglos por monjes budistas. Varios países han participado en las labores de reconstrucción de los templos, siendo los principales responsables los arqueólogos de la École Française d'Extreme Orient ('Escuela Francesa de Extremo Oriente'), cuya labor se remonta a 1908.
Angkor es una antigua palabra del sánscrito para referirse a ciudad; las palabras thom y wat son del actual Idioma jemer para "grande" y "pagoda" respectivamente. Así pues Angkor Thom se puede entender como la Gran Ciudad y Angkor Wat como la Ciudad del Templo.
Angkor est un site archéologique du Cambodge composé d'un ensemble de 200 temples et de nombreux aménagements hydrauliques (barays, canaux) dispersés sur plus de 400 km² qui fut la capitale de l'Empire khmer du IXe au XIVe siècle. C'est l'ensemble de monument le plus important de l'art khmer.
Ces ruines, méticuleusement restaurées pour certaines, sont situées dans les forêts au nord du Tonlé Sap, en bordure de la ville de Siem Reap. Classées depuis 1992 au patrimoine mondial par l'UNESCO, elles attiraient encore en 2019 plus de 1,5 million de visiteurs sur les 8 premiers mois de l'année, constituant ainsi la principale attraction touristique au Cambodge.
Angkor è il sito archeologico più importante della Cambogia e uno dei più importanti del Sud-est asiatico. Nel periodo compreso fra il IX ed il XV secolo ospitò la capitale dell'Impero Khmer, di cui fu il centro religioso e politico.
Il sito occupa parte della vasta pianura alluvionale compresa tra il grande lago Tonlé Sap e il gruppo montuoso del Phnom Kulen. La città di Siem Reap, sviluppatasi a partire dagli anni venti parallelamente all'aumento del flusso turistico, è il punto principale di accesso.
La maggioranza dei templi più noti e visitati è concentrata in un'area di circa 15 km per 6,5 km a nord di Siem Reap ma l'area totale definibile come Angkor è molto più vasta. Il "parco archeologico di Angkor", istituito per decreto reale nel 1994, si estende su 400 km² e comprende siti come Kbal Spean, distante 40 km dalla zona centrale.Studi recenti del "Greater Angkor Project" hanno confermato l'esistenza passata di una vasta conurbazione a bassa densità, intervallata da campi di riso ed ampia più di 1.000 km², con una popolazione di diverse centinaia di migliaia di abitanti. Secondo tali stime Angkor fu perciò il più vasto sito abitato in epoca pre-industriale.Le costruzioni principali sono circa un'ottantina ma in totale nell'area vi sono centinaia di templi induisti e buddisti, per quanto di molti esistano solo tracce o rovine costituite da modeste pile di mattoni. Quelli più visitati sono stati ripuliti dalla vegetazione e in larga misura ricostruiti secondo il metodo dell'anastilosi nel periodo della dominazione coloniale francese, in particolare dal primo dopoguerra in avanti. Il tempio più conosciuto è il famoso Angkor Wat, considerato il più vasto edificio religioso del mondo, la cui effigie stilizzata compare nella bandiera cambogiana.
I monumenti visibili hanno tutti carattere religioso perché gli edifici comuni, compresa la residenza reale, erano costruiti in materiali deperibili quali il legno e ne sono sopravvissuti solo pochi resti.
Angkor (Khmer: អង្គរ) é uma região do Camboja que serviu como sede do Império Khmer, que floresceu aproximadamente entre o século IX e XIII. A palavra "Angkor" é derivado do Sânscrito nagara, que significa "cidade". O período angkoriano começou em 802, quando o monarca quemer-hindu Jayavarman II declarou-se como um "monarca universal" e um "deus-rei", até 1431, quando invasores aiutaios (Tailandês) saquearam a capital Khmer, fazendo a sua população migrar para a zona sul de Phnom Penh.
As ruínas de Angkor estão localizadas em meio a florestas e terras ao norte do Lago Grande (Tonle Sap) e ao sul dos montes Kulen, próximo à moderna Siem Reap (13°24'N, 103°51'), e são consideradas como um Patrimônio Mundial da UNESCO. Na área de Angkor foram encontradas mais de mil ruínas de templos, variando em escala de pilhas de escombros até o imponente templo Angkor Wat, considerado o maior monumento religioso do mundo. Muitos dos templos de Angkor foram restaurados e, juntos, compõem o sítio mais significativo da arquitetura Khmer. O sítio de Angkor recebe mais de dois milhões de visitantes anualmente.
Em 1586, António da Madalena, um frade Capuchinho português foi o primeiro visitante ocidental a chegar a Angkor. Em 2007, uma equipe internacional de pesquisadores usando imagens de satélite e outras técnicas modernas concluiu que Angkor tinha sido a maior cidade pré-industrial do mundo, com um elaborado sistema de infra-estrutura conectando uma área urbana de pelo menos 1.000 quilômetros quadrados a partir dos templos já conhecidos no seu núcleo. A rival mais próxima de Angkor, a cidade maia de Tikal, na Guatemala, tinha entre 100 e 150 quilômetros quadrados de área total. Apesar de sua população ainda ser um tema de pesquisa e debate, recentemente foram identificados sistemas agrícolas na área de Angkor que poderiam ter sustentado até um milhão de habitantes.
吴哥城（高棉語：ក្រុងអង្គរ 发音：[kroŋ ʔɑŋ.ˈkɔː]）一座高棉帝國都城遺址，位於柬埔寨暹粒省暹粒市北不遠處，坐落於中央山（普農干丹，ភ្នំកណ្ដាល Phnum Kɑndaal）上。吳哥是高棉继訶利訶羅阿賴耶之後的都城，也是柬埔寨歷史上最重要的古都。現已闢爲吴哥考古园，包括大吳哥城（大城）、小吳哥城（寺城）在内。古蹟群分布在400平方公里的范围内，包括高棉王國从9世纪到15世纪各個城池和神庙，聯合國教科文組織於1992年將吳哥古蹟列為世界文化遗产。
English Angkor Wat
Undoubtedly the most famous and grandest Khmer archeological site spanning more than and protected as a UNESCO World Heritage site since 1992.
Places located in Angkor
Angkor Wat (; Khmer: អង្គរវត្ត, "City/Capital of Temples") is a temple complex in Cambodia and is the largest
religious monument in the world, on a site measuring 162.6 hectares (1,626,000 m2; 402 acres). Originally constructed as a Hindu temple dedicated to the god Vishnu for the Khmer Empire, it was gradually transformed into a Buddhist temple towards the end of the 12th century. It was built by the Khmer King Suryavarman II in the early 12th century in Yaśodharapura (Khmer: យសោធរបុរៈ, present-day Angkor), the capital of the Khmer Empire, as his state temple and eventual mausoleum. Breaking from the Shaiva tradition of previous kings, Angkor Wat was instead dedicated to Vishnu. As the best-preserved temple at the site, it is the only one to have remained a significant religious centre since its foundation. The temple is at the top of the high classical style of Khmer architecture. It has become a symbol of Cambodia, appearing on its national flag, and it is the country's prime attraction for visitors.Angkor Wat combines two basic plans of Khmer temple architecture: the temple-mountain and the later galleried temple. It is designed to represent Mount Meru, home of the devas in Hindu mythology: within a moat more than 5 kilometres (3 mi) long and an outer wall 3.6 kilometres (2.2 mi) long are three rectangular galleries, each raised above the next. At the centre of the temple stands a quincunx of towers. Unlike most Angkorian temples, Angkor Wat is oriented to the west; scholars are divided as to the significance of this. The temple is admired for the grandeur and harmony of the architecture, its extensive bas-reliefs, and for the numerous devatas adorning its walls.
The Baphuon (Khmer: ប្រាសាទបាពួន) is a temple at Angkor, Cambodia. It is located in Angkor Thom, northwest of the Bayon. Built in the mid-11th century, it is a three-tiered temple mountain built as the state temple of Udayadityavarman II dedicated to the Hindu God Shiva. It is the archetype of the Baphuon style with intricate carvings covering every available surface. The temple adjoins the southern enclosure of the royal palace and measures 120 metres east-west by 100 metres north-south at its base and stands 34 meters tall without its tower, which would have made it roughly 50 meters tall. Its appearance apparently impressed Temür Khan's late 13th century envoy Chou Ta-kuan during his visit from 1296 to 1297, who said it was 'the Tower of Bronze...a truly astonishing spectacle, with more than ten chambers at its base.'
In the late 15th century, the Baphuon was converted to a Buddhist temple. A 9 meter tall by 70 meter long statue of a reclining Buddha was built on the west side's second level, which probably required the demolition of the 8 meter tower above to supply stones for the statue, thus explaining its current absence. The temple was built on land filled with sand, and due to its immense size the site was unstable throughout its history. Large portions had probably already collapsed by the time the Buddha was added.
Surrounded by a wall 125 by 425 m the central tower was probably gilded wood, which has not survived.By the 20th century, much of the temple had largely collapsed, and restoration efforts took on an epic quality. A large-scale project to dismantle the temple so that its core could be re-enforced before the whole is re-constructed again—a process known as anastylosis—was abandoned after civil war broke out in 1970. The workers and archaeologists were forced to leave 300,000 carefully labelled and numbered blocks organised across 10 hectares surrounding the temple. However, the plans identifying the pieces were lost during the decade of conflict and the Khmer Rouge that followed.
A second project to restore the temple was launched in 1996 under the guidance of architect Pascal Royère from the EFEO. It took the team another 16 years to complete what had become known as the "largest 3D jigsaw puzzle in the world". In April 2011, after 51 years of work, the restoration was completed and the temple formally re-opened. King Norodom Sihamoni of Cambodia and Prime Minister Francois Fillon of France were among those who first toured the renovated temple during the inauguration ceremony on July 3, 2011.
The West Baray (Khmer: បារាយណ៍ខាងលិច) or Baray Teuk Thla (Khmer: បារាយណ៍ទឹកថ្លា; "clear water reservoir") is a baray, or reservoir, at Angkor, Cambodia, oriented east-west and located just west of the walled city Angkor Thom. Rectangular in shape and measuring approximately 7.8 by 2.1 kilometers, the West Baray is the largest baray at Angkor and one of the largest handcut water reservoirs on Earth, possessing a current maximum capacity of 12 to 14 billion gallons of water (53 million m3). Its waters are contained by tall earthen dikes measuring 39 feet in height. In the center of the baray is the West Mebon, a Hindu temple built on an artificial island.
Construction of the baray probably began in the 11th Century during the reign of King Suryavarman I and was finished later under King Udayadityavarman II.
The Angkorian engineers who created the West Baray appear to have in places incorporated earlier construction. The east dike, for instance, appears to be largely a section of a dike that enclosed the capital city of King Yasovarman, which had the Phnom Bakheng temple at its center. In other places, the baray obliterated or submerged earlier human-made sites. The south dike, for instance, partially buried a brick pyramid temple, Ak Yum. And the western floor of the baray appears to have once been inhabited—archeological work has found wall bases, steps, and pottery shards there. An inscription stele discovered in the area, dating from 713 A.D., offers further evidence of earlier settlement, defining rice fields that were offered to a queen Jayadevi.
Early French experts believed the West Baray to have functioned as a vast holding tank for water that fed irrigation canals in dry times, allowing multiple crops of rice each year. Many later studies, however, theorize that the baray had mainly symbolic functions, serving as a vast earthly depiction of the Hindu Sea of Creation, with the West Mebon temple at its center.
In modern times, an irrigation lock was built in the baray's southern dike, raising the water level and allowing provision of water to fields to the south. Today the baray retains water in its western end year-round. In the rainy season, water advances to the eastern dike.
With clear, still waters, the baray today is a popular place for swimming and boat rides by local residents. It has occasionally served as a landing site for seaplanes.
Angkor Thom (Khmer: អង្គរធំ pronounced [ʔɑːŋ.kɔː.tʰum]; literally: "Great City"), (alternative name: Nokor Thom, នគរធំ) located in present-day Cambodia, was the last and most enduring capital city of the Khmer Empire. It was established in the late twelfth century by King Jayavarman VII. It covers an area of 9 km², within which are located several monuments from earlier eras as well as those established by Jayavarman and his successors. At the centre of the city is Jayavarman's state temple, the Bayon, with the other major sites clustered around the Victory Square immediately to the north. It is also a very big tourist attraction, and people come from all over the world to see it.
The Bayon (Khmer: ប្រាសាទបាយ័ន, Prasat Bayon) is a richly decorated Khmer temple at Angkor in Cambodia. Built in the late 12th or early 13th century as the state temple of the Mahayana Buddhist King Jayavarman VII (Khmer: ព្រះបាទជ័យវរ្ម័នទី ៧), the Bayon stands at the centre of Jayavarman's capital, Angkor Thom (Khmer: អង្គរធំ). Following Jayavarman's death, it was modified and augmented by later Theravada Buddhist kings in accordance with their own religious preferences.
The Bayon's most distinctive feature is the multitude of serene and smiling stone faces on the many towers which jut out from the upper terrace and cluster around its central peak. The temple has two sets of bas-reliefs, which present a combination of mythological, historical, and mundane scenes. The main conservatory body, the Japanese Government Team for the Safeguarding of Angkor (the JSA) has described the temple as "the most striking expression of the baroque style" of Khmer architecture, as contrasted with the classical style of Angkor Wat (Khmer: ប្រាសាទអង្គរវត្ត).
The East Mebon (Khmer: ប្រាសាទមេបុណ្យខាងកើត) is a 10th Century temple at Angkor, Cambodia. Built during the reign of King Rajendravarman, it stands on what was an artificial island at the center of the now dry East Baray reservoir.The East Mebon was dedicated to the Hindu god Shiva and honors the parents of the king. Its location reflects Khmer architects’ concern with orientation and cardinal directions. The temple was built on a north–south axis with Rajendravarman's state temple, Pre Rup, located about 1,200 meters to the south just outside the baray. The East Mebon also lies on an east–west axis with the palace temple Phimeanakas, another creation of Rajendravarman's reign, located about 6,800 meters due west.
Built in the general style of Pre Rup, the East Mebon was dedicated in 953 AD. It has two enclosing walls and three tiers. It includes the full array of durable Khmer construction materials: sandstone, brick, laterite and stucco. At the top is a central tower on a square platform, surrounded by four smaller towers at the platform's corners. The towers are of brick; holes that formerly anchored stucco are visible.
The sculpture at the East Mebon is varied and exceptional, including two-meter-high free-standing stone elephants at corners of the first and second tiers. Religious scenes include the god Indra atop his three-headed elephant Airavata, and Shiva on his mount, the sacred bull Nandi. Carving on lintels is particularly elegant.
Visitors looking out from the upper level today are left to imagine the vast expanses of water that formerly surrounded the temple. Four landing stages at the base give reminder that the temple was once reached by boat.
Ta Prohm (Khmer: ប្រាសាទតាព្រហ្ម, "Ancestor Brahma") is the modern name of the temple at Angkor, Siem Reap Province, Cambodia, built in the Bayon style largely in the late 12th and early 13th centuries and originally called Rajavihara (Khmer: រាជវិហារ, "royal monastery"). Located approximately one kilometre east of Angkor Thom and on the southern edge of the East Baray, it was founded by the Khmer King Jayavarman VII as a Mahayana Buddhist monastery and university. Unlike most Angkorian temples, Ta Prohm is in much the same condition in which it was found: the photogenic and atmospheric combination of trees growing out of the ruins and the jungle surroundings have made it one of Angkor's most popular temples with visitors. UNESCO inscribed Ta Prohm on the World Heritage List in 1992. Today, it is one of the most visited complexes in Cambodia’s Angkor region. The conservation and restoration of Ta Prohm is a partnership project of the Archaeological Survey of India and the APSARA (Authority for the Protection and Management of Angkor and the Region of Siem Reap).
Banteay Srei or Banteay Srey (Khmer: ប្រាសាទបន្ទាយស្រី) is a 10th-century Cambodian temple dedicated to the Hindu god Shiva. Located in the area of Angkor, it lies near the hill of Phnom Dei, 25 km (16 mi) north-east of the main group of temples that once belonged to the medieval capitals of Yasodharapura and Angkor Thom. Banteay Srei is built largely of red sandstone, a medium that lends itself to the elaborate decorative wall carvings which are still observable today. The buildings themselves are miniature in scale, unusually so when measured by the standards of Angkorian construction. These factors have made the temple extremely popular with tourists, and have led to its being widely praised as a "precious gem", or the "jewel of Khmer art."
Mangalartha (Khmer: មង្គលាថ៌ - Mongkulathak), or East Prasat Top (Khmer: ប្រាសាទតុបខាងកើត) or Monument 487 (Khmer: ប្រាសាទលេខ៤៨៧), is a tiny Hindu temple at Angkor, Cambodia.
It is located in Angkor Thom, south of Victory Way, at the end of a track in the jungle which begins some 300 m before the Victory Gate. As it consists of a small ruined temple on a basement, overgrown with vegetation, it is one of less visited temples of Angkor.
It was dedicated on Thursday 28 April 1295 CE, according to its four sided inscribed stele, and its importance is all about being the last of the known Angkor monuments dated with precision.
It was built in sandstone during the reign of Jayavarman VIII, in honour of a Brahmin scholar called Mangalartha, assimilated to Vishnu. It's cruciform in plan and opens to east, while on the other cardinal points there are blind doors. The sanctuary chamber sheltered two statues, one of Mangalartha and the other of his mother, whose pedestal is still in place. Mangalartha essentially is the Vaman Avatar (incarnation) of Lord Vishnu. The legend has it that in this Avatar, The Lord blessed Bali, the Rakshasa (demonic people) King by asking three vows from the latter in which the Lord took three giant steps and covered the entire Earth, The Heaven and then in order that He could bless the King, put his third step on the vituous King's head. Pediments lie on the ground. They show Vishnu reclining on Shesha, the three strides of Vishnu to regain the World, a Shiva dancing with four arms and Krishna lifting Mount Govardhana.
The Khleangs are two buildings of unknown purpose on the east side of the Royal Square in Angkor Thom, Cambodia, located just behind the twelve towers of Prasat Suor Prat and separated by the royal route that leads from the Angkor Thom Royal Palace to the Victory Gate. They are oriented along the north-south axis. The two were not built at the same time—the northern building (North Khleang) was built under King Jayaviravarman and the southern (South Khleang) under his successor Suryavarman I—but they are of similar design (although South Khleang is slight narrower). They have given their name to the Khleang style, which is characterised by relatively simple lintels with a central kala. Other buildings in the style are Phimeanakas and Ta Keo.
Rectangular sandstone buildings set opposite the Elephants Terrace, behind the Prasat Suor Prat. ‘Khleang’ means ‘storeroom’ but it is unlikely that this was the function of the structures, A royal oath of allegiance is carved into the doorway of one Khleang indicating that they may have served as reception areas or even housing for visiting noblemen and ambassadors. The North Khleang was built in wood under Rajendravarman II and then rebuilt in stone by Jayavaraman V, probably before the construction of the South Khleang. The Khleangs are unremarkable upon close inspection but picturesque from a distance, standing among the Prasat Suor Prat. Best photographed in the afternoon.
Prasat Kravan (Khmer: ប្រាសាទក្រវាន់) is a small 10th-century temple consisting of five reddish brick towers on a common terrace, at Angkor, Cambodia, south of the artificial lake (baray) called Srah Srang. Its original Sanskrit name is unknown. The modern name in Khmer, "Prasat Kravan", means artabotrys odoratissimus temple. The temple was dedicated to Vishnu in 921 CE, according to an inscription on doorjambs.The site was cleaned from vegetation in the 1930s by Henri Marchal and Georges Trouvé. Afterwards the towers were restored on Bernard Philippe Groslier's initiative from 1962 to 1966, adding some new bricks which are marked with a "CA" (meaning "Conservation Angkor").The temple is oriented to the east and surrounded by a small moat. Its exterior is striking for its classical lines and symmetry. The central and the south tower have superstructures which take advantage of false perspective by simple means of diminishing tiers. The sanctuary's interiors are remarkable for the large bas-relief depictions of Vishnu and Lakshmi that have been carved into the walls of reddish brick, connected by a vegetable compound. This type of sculptured artwork is rather common in Cham temples, but rare in known Khmer monuments.
Bakong (Khmer: ប្រាសាទបាគង) is the first temple mountain of sandstone constructed by rulers of the Khmer empire at Angkor near modern Siem Reap in Cambodia. In the final decades of the 9th century AD, it served as the official state temple of King Indravarman I in the ancient city of Hariharalaya, located in an area that today is called Roluos.
The structure of Bakong took shape of stepped pyramid, popularly identified as temple mountain of early Khmer temple architecture. The striking similarity of the Bakong and Borobudur temple in Java, going into architectural details such as the gateways and stairs to the upper terraces, suggests strongly that Borobudur was served as the prototype of Bakong. There must have been exchanges of travelers, if not mission, between Khmer kingdom and the Sailendras in Java. Transmitting to Cambodia not only ideas, but also technical and architectural details of Borobudur, including arched gateways in corbelling method.
Prasat Suor Prat (Khmer: ប្រាសាទសួព្រ័ត) is a series of twelve towers spanning north to south lining the eastern side of a royal square in Angkor Thom, near the town of Siem Reap, Cambodia. The towers are made from rugged laterite and sandstone. They are right in front of Terrace of the Elephants and Terrace of the Leper King, flanking the start of the road leading east to the Victory Gate, on either side of which they are symmetrically arranged. Their function remains unknown.The current tower's name in Khmer means "The towers of the tightrope dancers," a romantic idea derived from the local belief that they were used to support a high wire stretched between them for acrobatics during royal festivals. This belief, however, is irrelevant. Zhou Daguan describes in his records that the towers are used to settle disputes among Angkorian people.
The temple was possibly built during the reign of Indravarman II.
Among the twelve towers, the structures identified as N1 tower and N2 antechamber were in danger of collapse and were reconstructed in 2001-2005 by JSA (Japanese Government Team for Safeguarding of Angkor) and APSARA.
Banteay Kdei (Khmer: ប្រាសាទបន្ទាយក្តី; Prasat Banteay Kdei), meaning "A Citadel of Chambers", also known as "Citadel of Monks' cells", is a Buddhist temple in Angkor, Cambodia. It is located southeast of Ta Prohm and east of Angkor Thom. Built in the mid-12th to early 13th centuries AD during the reign of Jayavarman VII (who was posthumously given the title "Maha paramasangata pada"), it is in the Bayon architectural style, similar in plan to Ta Prohm and Preah Khan, but less complex and smaller. Its structures are contained within two successive enclosure walls, and consist of two concentric galleries from which emerge towers, preceded to the east by a cloister.This Buddhist monastic complex is currently dilapidated due to faulty construction and poor quality of sandstone used in its buildings, and is now undergoing renovation. Banteay Kdei had been occupied by monks at various intervals over the centuries until the 1960s.
Chau Say Tevoda (Khmer: ប្រាសាទចៅសាយទេវតា, literally: prolific grandchildren of a deity) is a temple at Angkor, Cambodia. It is just east of Angkor Thom, directly south of Thommanon across the Victory Way (it pre-dates the former and post-dates the latter). Built in the mid-12th century, it is a Hindu temple in the Angkor Wat period. It is dedicated to Shiva and Vishnu with unique types of female sculptures of devatas enshrined in it. The Buddha images have been interpreted to have been built during the reign of Dharanindravarman, father of Jayavarman VII, who ruled from Preah Khan of Kompong. The temple was in a dilapidated state with 4,000 of its elements lying scattered on the embankment and in the Siem Reap River. Many of these elements were used in the restoration work carried out by a Chinese team between 2000 and 2009 under a project sponsored by the People's Republic of China. The temple was reopened in late 2009.
Preah Khan (Khmer: ប្រាសាទព្រះខ័ន; "Royal Sword") is a temple at Angkor, Cambodia, built in the 12th century for King Jayavarman VII to honor his father. It is located northeast of Angkor Thom and just west of the Jayatataka baray, with which it was associated. It was the centre of a substantial organisation, with almost 100,000 officials and servants. The temple is flat in design, with a basic plan of successive rectangular galleries around a Buddhist sanctuary complicated by Hindu satellite temples and numerous later additions. Like the nearby Ta Prohm, Preah Khan has been left largely unrestored, with numerous trees and other vegetation growing among the ruins.
Lolei (Khmer: ប្រាសាទលលៃ) is the northernmost temple of the Roluos group of three late 9th century Hindu temples at Angkor, Cambodia, the others members of which are Preah Ko and the Bakong. Lolei was the last of the three temples to be built as part of the city of Hariharalaya that once flourished at Roluos, and in 893 the Khmer king Yasovarman I dedicated it to Shiva and to members of the royal family. The name "Lolei" is thought to be a modern corruption of the ancient name "Hariharalaya," which means "the city of Harihara." Once an island temple, Lolei was located on an island slightly north of centre in the now dry Indratataka baray, construction of which had nearly been completed under Yasovarman's father and predecessor Indravarman I. Scholars believe that placing the temple on an island in the middle of a body of water served to identify it symbolically with Mount Meru, home of the gods, which in Hindu mythology is surrounded by the world oceans.
Siem Reap International Airport (IATA: REP, ICAO: VDSR) (Khmer: អាកាសយានដ្ឋានអន្តរជាតិសៀមរាបអង្គរ French: Aéroport International de Siem Reap) serves Siem Reap, a popular tourist destination due to nearby Angkor Wat. It is the second busiest airport in Cambodia after Phnom Penh International Airport.
The Terrace of the Elephants (Khmer: ព្រះលានជល់ដំរី) is part of the walled city of Angkor Thom, a ruined temple complex in Cambodia. The terrace was used by Angkor's king Jayavarman VII as a platform from which to view his victorious returning army. It was attached to the palace of Phimeanakas (Khmer: ប្រាសាទភិមានអាកាស), of which only a few ruins remain. Most of the original structure was made of organic material and has long since disappeared. Most of what remains are the foundation platforms of the complex. The terrace is named for the carvings of elephants on its eastern face.
The 350m-long Terrace of Elephants was used as a giant reviewing stand for public ceremonies and served as a base for the king's grand audience hall. It has five outworks extending towards the Central Square-three in the centre and one at each end. The middle section of the retaining wall is decorated with life size garuda and lions; towards either end are the two parts of the famous parade of elephants complete with their Khmer mahouts.
Bat Chum (Khmer: ប្រាសាទបាទជុំ) is a small temple built by Kavindrarimathana, a learned Buddhist minister of khmer king Rajendravarman, at the middle of the 10th century. It is about 400 meters (1,300 ft) south of Srah Srang, at Angkor, Cambodia.
It consists of three inline brick towers (in poor conditions at present), standing on the same platform, surrounded by an enclosure and a moat, with a single gopura to the east.
On the doorjambs there are Buddhist inscriptions that mention Kavindrarimathana, the "architect" (or official in charge for construction) who built Srah Srang, East Mebon, and maybe planned the temple-mountain of Pre Rup. The latter was dedicated in 960 AD, shortly before death of the architect. There were houses and a Buddhist monastery near the temple, but these wooden structures have been gone for a long time.During the excavations in 1952, in the northern and central towers, flagstones showing a yantra were found, which George Coedès was able to reconstitute and with extreme difficulty link to the Buddhist divinities mentioned on doorjambs.In every tower there is a different inscription signed by three different persons. The last verse of each of the three names the elephants as "dyke breakers".
Ak Yum (Khmer: ប្រាសាទអកយំ) is an ancient temple in the Angkor region of Cambodia. Helen Jessup dates the temple to the 8th century, and states it is the oldest known example of "temple mountain" in Southeast Asia.The origins and repair history of the temple are unclear. Stone carrying inscriptions, including one with a date corresponding to Saturday 10 June 674 AD during the reign of king Jayavarman I. The first structure on the site was a single-chamber brick sanctuary, probably constructed in the latter part of the 8th century. Later it was remade into a larger stepped pyramid structure, with a base approximately 100 meters square. The expansion probably took place in the early 9th Century during the reign of King Jayavarman II, who is widely recognized as the founder of the Khmer Empire. When the West Baray reservoir was built in the 11th Century, Ak Yum was partially buried by the southern dike. The site was excavated in the 1932 under the direction of archaeologist George Trouvé.
The East baray (Khmer: បារាយណ៍ខាងកើត), or Yashodharatataka, is a now-dry baray, or artificial body of water, at Angkor, Cambodia, oriented east-west and located just east of the walled city Angkor Thom. It was built around the year 900 AD during the reign of King Yasovarman. Fed by the Siem Reap River flowing down from the Kulen Hills, it was the second-largest baray in the Angkor region (after the West Baray) and one of the largest handcut water reservoirs on Earth, measuring roughly 7.5 by 1.8 kilometers and holding over 50 million cubic meters of water. Stones bearing inscriptions that mark the construction of the baray have been found at all four of its corners. The labour and organization necessary for its construction were staggering: Its dikes contain roughly 8 million cubic meters of fill.Scholars are divided on the purpose of this and other barays. By some theories, they held water for irrigation, but no inscription has been found mentioning such a function. Other theories say that barays served primarily a symbolic purpose in Khmer religious life, representing the seas of creation that surround Mount Meru, home of the Hindu gods.The East Baray today contains no water; farmers till crops on its bed. But its outlines remain clearly visible in satellite photographs. In the middle of the baray is the East Mebon temple, located on elevated ground that was an island in the days when the baray contained water.
Roluos (Khmer: រលួស) is a Cambodian modern small town and an archeological site about 13 km east of Siem Reap along NH6. Once it was the seat of Hariharalaya, first capital of Khmer Empire north of Tonlé Sap (as the first capital in the strict sense of the term could have been Indrapura, identifiable with Banteay Prey Nokor).
Among the "Roluos Group" of temples there are some of the earliest permanent structures built by Khmer. They mark the beginning of classical period of Khmer civilization, dating from the late 9th century. Some were totally built with bricks, others partially with laterite or sandstone (the first large angkorian temple built with sandstone was possibly Ta Keo)
At present it is composed by three major temples: Bakong, Lolei, and Preah Ko, along with tiny Prasat Prei Monti. At both Bakong and Lolei there are contemporary Theravada buddhist monasteries.
Phimeanakas (Khmer: ប្រាសាទភិមានអាកាស, Prasat Phimean Akas, 'celestial temple') or Vimeanakas (Khmer: ប្រាសាទវិមានអាកាស, Prasat Vimean Akas) at Angkor, Cambodia, is a Hindu temple in the Khleang style, built at the end of the 10th century, during the reign of Rajendravarman (from 941-968), then completed by Suryavarman I in the shape of a three tier pyramid as a Hindu temple. On top of the pyramid there was a tower, while on the edge of top platform there are galleries. Phimeanakas is located inside the walled enclosure of the Royal Palace of Angkor Thom north of Baphuon.
Ta Som (Khmer: ប្រាសាទតាសោម) is a small temple at Angkor, Cambodia, built at the end of the 12th century for King Jayavarman VII. It is located north east of Angkor Thom and just east of Neak Pean. The King dedicated the temple to his father Dharanindravarman II (Paramanishkalapada) who was King of the Khmer Empire from 1150 to 1160. The temple consists of a single shrine located on one level and surrounded by enclosure laterite walls. Like the nearby Preah Khan and Ta Prohm the temple was left largely unrestored, with numerous trees and other vegetation growing among the ruins. In 1998, the World Monuments Fund (WMF) added the temple to their restoration program and began work to stabilise the structure to make it safer for visitors.
The Terrace of the Leper King (or Leper King Terrace) (Khmer: ព្រះលានស្តេចគម្លង់, Preah Lean Sdach Kumlung) is located in the northwest corner of the Royal Square of Angkor Thom, Cambodia.
It was built in the Bayon style under Jayavarman VII, though its modern name derives from a 15th-century sculpture discovered at the site. The statue depicts the Hindu god Yama, the god of death.
The statue was called the "Leper King" because discolouration and moss growing on it was reminiscent of a person with leprosy, and also because it fit in with a Cambodian legend of an Angkorian king Yasovarman I who had leprosy. The name that the Cambodians know him by, however, is Dharmaraja, as this is what was etched at the bottom of the original statue.
The U-shaped structure is thought by some to have been used as a royal cremation site.
Phnom Bakheng (Khmer: ប្រាសាទភ្នំបាខែង) at Angkor, Cambodia, is a Hindu and Buddhist temple in the form of a temple mountain. Dedicated to Shiva, it was built at the end of the 9th century, during the reign of King Yasovarman (889-910). Located atop a hill, it is nowadays a popular tourist spot for sunset views of the much bigger temple Angkor Wat, which lies amid the jungle about 1.5 km to the southeast. The large number of visitors makes Phnom Bakheng one of the most threatened monuments of Angkor. Since 2004, World Monuments Fund has been working to conserve the temple in partnership with APSARA.
Spean Thma (Khmer: ស្ពានថ្ម) in Angkor, Cambodia is known as the bridge of stone and it is located west of Ta Keo. It is one of the few Khmer Empire era bridges to have survived to the modern day.
It was built on the former path of the Siem Reap River between Angkor Thom and the Eastern Baray and it was probably rebuilt after the Khmer period (around the 15th century), as it includes many reused sandstone blocks.The 14 narrow arches are 1.10 m wide.
Several other bridges on the same model are visible: in the Angkor site (Spean Memai) and at several locations of the former empire. On the road from Angkor to Beng Mealea, the Spean Praptos is one of the longest with 25 arches.
Baksei Chamkrong (Khmer: ប្រាសាទបក្សីចាំក្រុង) is a small Hindu temple located in the Angkor complex (Siem Reap, Cambodia). It is dedicated to Lord Shiva and used to hold a golden image of him. The temple can be seen on the left side when entering Angkor Thom at the southern gate. It was dedicated to Yasovarman by his son, King Harshavarman I. The temple was completed by Rajendravarman II (944-968).
Preah Ko (Khmer: ប្រាសាទព្រះគោ, "The Sacred Bull") was the first temple to be built in the ancient and now defunct city of Hariharalaya (in the area that today is called Roluos), some 15 kilometers south-east of the main group of temples at Angkor, Cambodia. The temple was built under the Khmer King Indravarman I in 879 to honor members of the king's family, whom it places in relation with the Hindu deity Shiva.
Thommanon (Khmer: ប្រាសាទធម្មនន្ទ) is one of a pair of Hindu temples built during the reign of Suryavarman II (1113–1150) at Angkor, Cambodia. This small and elegant temple is east of the Gate of Victory of Angkor Thom and north of Chau Say Tevoda. It is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site, inscribed by UNESCO in 1992 titled Angkor. The temple is dedicated to Shiva and Vishnu.
Pre Rup (Khmer: ប្រាសាទប្រែរូប) is a Hindu temple at Angkor, Cambodia, built as the state temple of Khmer king Rajendravarman and dedicated in 961 or early 962. It is a temple mountain of combined brick, laterite and sandstone construction.
The temple's name is a comparatively modern one meaning "turn the body". This reflects the common belief among Cambodians that funerals were conducted at the temple, with the ashes of the body being ritually rotated in different directions as the service progressed.
Neak Pean (or Neak Poan) (Khmer: ប្រាសាទនាគព័ន្ធ) ("The entwined serpents") at Angkor, Cambodia is an artificial island with a Buddhist temple on a circular island in Jayatataka Baray, which was associated with Preah Khan temple, built during the reign of King Jayavarman VII. It is the "Mebon" of the Preah Khan baray (the "Jayatataka" of the inscription).
Prasat Chrung (Khmer: ប្រាសាទជ្រុង) are temples that located at each corner of the Angkor Thom, on the earth embankment that reaches almost to the top of the walls, is a small temple known as Prasat Chrung (Shrine of the Angle) in modern Khmer. These four sandstone temples, in the style of Bayon, were Buddhist and dedicated to the Bodhisatta Lokesvara, as was the Bayon and the city. Cross-shaped in plan and facing to the east side. The sanctuary surrounded by a tower and originally steles with a poem praising the king were housed in small adjacent structures. Each stele has four different authors. Today these are housed in the Conservation office.
Some of the originally Buddhist pediments were defaced in the late 13th century during the reign of king Jayavarman VIII and the figure of the Buddha was transformed into a linga.
A baray (Khmer: បារាយណ៍) is an artificial body of water which is a common element of the architectural style of the Khmer Empire of Southeast Asia. The largest are the East Baray and West Baray in the Angkor area, each rectangular in shape, oriented east-west and measuring roughly five by one and a half miles. Historians are divided on the meaning and functions of barays. Some believe that they were primarily spiritual in purpose, symbolizing the Sea of Creation surrounding Mount Meru, font of the Hindu cosmos. Others have theorized that they held water for irrigation of fields. It is possible that the function was a combination of these explanations, or others.
The building of barays might have originated from the tradition of building large reservoirs called dighi in Eastern India.
The West Mebon (Khmer: ប្រាសាទមេបុណ្យខាងលិច) is a temple at Angkor, Cambodia, located in the center of the West Baray, the largest reservoir of the Angkor area. The temple's date of construction is not known, but evidence suggests the 11th Century during the reign of King Suryavarman I and Udayadityavarman II.
Kutisvara (Khmer: ប្រាសាទកុដិស្វរៈ or ក្តីសូរ) is a small brick temple consisting of three towers in ruined condition. It is the site of Kuti, mentioned in the stele of Sdok Kok Thom in connection with the 9th century of Jayavarman II. Besides, an inscription found on a stone reused for the building of Banteay Kdei next door mentions dedication to Shiva and the erection of two statues of Vishnu and Brahma by Shivacarya, one of Rajendravarman's priests in the 10th century.
There are three collapsed brick towers arranged in a north-south row on a raised earth all facing to east. The platform of the central tower is brick but the other two are built in laterite.
Ta Prohm Kel (Khmer: ប្រាសាទតាព្រហ្មកិល ឬ ប្រាសាទព្រហ្មកិល) is a small ruined sandstone monument in Angkor archaeological park, Siem Reap province, Cambodia.
Ta Prohm Kel was one of the 102 hospital chapels, some of which were already in existence, by King Jayavarman VII all over the empire. The sanctuary opened to the east and had false doors on the other three sides. It was preceded by a small sandstone gopura a little to the east of which traces remain. The decoration is in the style of the Bayon, with devatas and small roundels enclosing figures. A somasutra or channel for draining lustral water out of the shrine, existed through the north wall of the sanctuary.
Banteay Samré (Khmer: ប្រាសាទបន្ទាយសំរែ, "The Citadel of the Samré") is a temple at Angkor, Cambodia, located 400 metres to the east of the East Baray. Built during the reign of Suryavarman II and Yasovarman II in the early 12th century, it is a Hindu temple in the Angkor Wat style.
Named after the Samré, an ancient people of Indochina, the temple uses the same materials as the Banteay Srei.
Banteay Samré was excellently restored by Maurice Glaize from 1936 until 1944. The design of its single ogival tower is immediately recognizable as Angkor Wat style along with other temples in the region such as Thommanon and Chau Say Tevoda. Due to this temple's similarity to some monuments of north-east Thailand, it has the appearance of a compact Phimai. While there are no inscriptions describing its foundation, it seems likely to have been built by a high official of the court during the reign of King Suryavarman II.
Preah Palilay (Khmer: ប្រាសាទព្រះបាលិលេយ្យ) is a temple at Angkor, Cambodia. It is located in Angkor Thom, 400 m north-west of Phimeanakas.
This small Buddhist sanctuary in the wooded area north of the Royal palace in Angkor Thom has a number of attractive features and is well worth the short detour.
Ta Keo (Khmer: ប្រាសាទតាកែវ) is a temple-mountain in Angkor (Cambodia), possibly the first to be built entirely of sandstone by Khmers.
Preah Pithu (Khmer: ប្រាសាទព្រះពិធូរ), or Prasat Preah Pithu, is a group of five temples at Angkor, Cambodia.
In fact they were in all probability not designed as a group. Despite their ruined state, the remains have good decorative carving and their semi-wooded setting is attractive and peaceful.
Srah Srang (Khmer: ស្រះស្រង់, "Royal Bath") is a baray or reservoir at Angkor, Cambodia, located south of the East Baray and east of Banteay Kdei.
Krol Ko (Khmer: ប្រាសាទក្រោលគោ) at Angkor, Cambodia, is a Buddhist temple built at the end of the 12th century under the rule of Jayavarman VII. It is north of Neak Pean.
Prasat Bei (Khmer: ប្រាសាទបី, "three temples") is a temple with three brick towers in a north-south row, facing to the east, and standing on a laterite platform. The central tower contained a linga; the flanking towers reach no higher than the doorways. Only the lintels of the central and south towers were carved, both showing Indra on the elephant Airavata.
Ta Nei (Khmer: ប្រាសាទតានៃ) is a late 12th century stone temple in Angkor, Cambodia. Built during the reign of King Jayavarman VII, it is near the northwest corner of the East Baray, a large holy reservoir. It was dedicated to the Buddha.
Hariharalaya (Khmer: ហរិហរាល័យ, Hariharalay) was an ancient city and capital of the Khmer empire located near Siem Reap, Cambodia in an area now called Roluos (Khmer: រលួស). Today, all that remains of the city are the ruins of several royal temples: Preah Ko, the Bakong, Lolei.
The Royal Palace was first built by king Suryavarman I and used continuously from the 11th to the late 16th century AD. During that period, the area was transformed and restored several times. Recent excavations have revealed many remains, such as a 10th-century temple which was built by a minister to Yasovarman I, was probably considered to be this minister's residence.
Most of the royal palace buildings were constructed by using perishable materials because they would have been non-religious in nature.
|part of||Angkor Wat|
|part of||West Mebon|
|part of||Krol Ko|
|part of||Ta Nei|
|part of||Banteay Prei Temple|
|part of||Prasat Leak Neang|
|part of||Prasat Prei Kmeng|
|part of||Phnom Rung|
|part of||Angkor Hospital Chapel|
|part of||Wat Athvea|
|part of||Trapeang Phong Temple|
|part of||Totung Thngai Temple|
|part of||Trapeang Kaek Temple|
|part of||Kok Po|
|part of||Krol Romeas|
|part of||Prasat Kandal Doeum|