Forbidden City

File:Forbidden City1.JPG

Chinese imperial palace in Beijing

Tourist attraction

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons category: Forbidden City

Geographical coordinates: 39.914722222 116.390555555

Wikipedia

English Forbidden City

The Forbidden City (Chinese: 故宫; pinyin: Gùgōng) is a palace complex in central Beijing, China. It houses the Palace Museum, and was the former Chinese imperial palace from the Ming dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty (the years 1420 to 1912). The Forbidden City served as the home of emperors and their households and was the ceremonial and political center of Chinese government for almost 500 years.

Constructed from 1406 to 1420, the complex consists of 980 buildings and covers 72 hectares (over 180 acres). The palace exemplifies traditional Chinese palatial architecture, and has influenced cultural and architectural developments in East Asia and elsewhere. The Forbidden City was declared a World Heritage Site in 1987, and is listed by UNESCO as the largest collection of preserved ancient wooden structures in the world.

Since 1925, the Forbidden City has been under the charge of the Palace Museum, whose extensive collection of artwork and artifacts were built upon the imperial collections of the Ming and Qing dynasties. Part of the museum's former collection is now in the National Palace Museum in Taipei. Both museums descend from the same institution, but were split after the Chinese Civil War. Since 2012, the Forbidden City has seen an average of 14 million visitors annually, and received more than 16 million visitors in 2016 and 2017.

Source: Forbidden City

German Verbotene Stadt

Die Verbotene Stadt (chinesisch 故宮 / 故宫, Pinyin Gùgōng – „alter Palast / ehemaliger Palast“ bzw. 紫禁城, Zǐjìnchéng – „Purpurne Verbotene Stadt“) ist eine Palastanlage im Zentrum Pekings. Dort lebten und regierten bis zur Revolution 1911 die chinesischen Kaiser der Dynastien Ming und Qing. Der einfachen Bevölkerung war der Zutritt verwehrt – was den Namen Verbotene Stadt erklärt. Die Verbotene Stadt liegt am nördlichen Ende des Tian’anmen-Platzes. 1987 wurde sie von der UNESCO zum Weltkulturerbe erklärt.Die Verbotene Stadt stellt ein Meisterwerk der chinesischen Architektur dar. Ihre Anlage entsprach der Weltsicht der kaiserlichen Herrscher: ein annähernd rechtwinkliger Grundriss – ausgerichtet entsprechend dem Prinzip von Yin und Yang an der Nord-Süd-Achse – und die Verbotene Stadt als Machtsymbol des Kaisers in der Mitte. In ihr befanden sich unter anderem die Paläste der Herrscher. Die Dächer der meisten Hauptgebäude waren teilvergoldet und mit in Gelb, der Symbolfarbe des chinesischen Kaisers, glasierten Ziegeln gedeckt. Kein Gebäude in Peking durfte die Verbotene Stadt in der Höhe überragen.

Source: Verbotene Stadt

Polish Zakazane Miasto

Zakazane Miasto (chiń. 故宫, Gù Gōng, dosł. „Starożytny Pałac”) – dawny pałac cesarski dynastii Ming i Qing, znajdujący się w centrum Pekinu. W 1987 roku obiekt został wpisany na listę światowego dziedzictwa UNESCO.

Source: Zakazane Miasto

Russian Запретный город

Запретный город (кит. упр. 紫禁城, пиньинь Zǐjìnchéng, палл. Цзыцзиньчэн, буквально: «Пурпурный запретный город»; в наши дни обычно именуется кит. упр. 故宫, пиньинь Gùgōng, палл. Гугун, буквально: «Бывший дворец») — самый обширный дворцовый комплекс в мире (961 x 753 метров, 720 тыс. м², 980 зданий). Находится в центре Пекина, к северу от главной площади Тяньаньмэнь и восточнее озёрного квартала (резиденции современных руководителей страны). Главный дворцовый комплекс китайских императоров начиная с династии Мин и до конца династии Цин, то есть с 1420 по 1912 годы; на протяжении всего этого времени служил как местом жительства императоров и членов их семей, так и церемониальным и политическим центром китайского правительства. Отсюда Поднебесной правили 24 императора династий Мин и Цин.

Построенный в период с 1406 по 1420 годы, как дворец китайских императоров Мин, дворцовый комплекс с тех пор претерпел множество изменений. Будучи образцом традиционной китайской дворцовой архитектуры, комплекс повлиял на культурное и архитектурное развитие как Восточной Азии, так и других регионов. С 1925 года Запретный город находится в ведении Дворцового музея, чья обширная коллекция произведений искусства и артефактов была сформирована на базе императорских коллекций династий Мин и Цин. Часть бывшей музейной коллекции сейчас расположена в Музее императорского дворца в Тайпее; оба музея берут своё начало от одного и того же учреждения, однако после Гражданской войны в Китае разделились.

В 1987 году Запретный город первым из китайских объектов был занесён ЮНЕСКО в список всемирного наследия человечества. Включён ЮНЕСКО в число крупнейших в мире собраний сохранившихся древних деревянных строений.

Source: Запретный город

Ukrainian Заборонене місто

Заборонене місто (кит. спр. 紫禁城, піньїнь: Zǐjìnchéng, акад.: Цзицзіньчен, буквально: «Пурпурове заборонене місто»; в наші дні зазвичай іменується кит. спр. 故宫, піньїнь: Gùgōng, акад.: Ґуґун, буквально: «Колишній палац») — найбільший палацовий комплекс у світі (961 x 753 метрів, 720 тис. м2, 980 будівель), головний палацовий комплекс китайських імператорів від XV до початку XX століття. Розташований в центрі Пекіна, на північ від головної площі Тяньаньмень і на схід від озерного кварталу (резиденції сучасних керівників країни). Звідси Піднебесною правили 24 імператори династій Мін і Цин. Першим із китайських об'єктів занесений ЮНЕСКО до списку всесвітньої спадщини людства (1987 року). Включений ЮНЕСКО до числа найбільших у світі зібрань збережених стародавніх дерев'яних будівель.

Source: Заборонене місто

cs Zakázané město

Zakázané město (čínsky v českém přepisu C’-ťin-čcheng, pchin-jinem Zǐ​jìn​chéng, znaky 紫禁城, doslova „Purpurové zakázané město“) je komplex budov vybudovaných v Pekingu v nitru Vnitřního města během vlády dynastie Ming. Celkem bylo na území Zakázaného města vystavěno kolem 800 budov a spolu s rozlehlými zahradami tvoří uzavřený celek o rozloze 720 000 m2; je obehnáno 8,5 m širokou zdí a 52 m širokým vodním příkopem. Většina budov postavených za říše Ming byla zničena a v období říše Čching byla znovu vybudována.

Komplex je od roku 1925 přeměněn v muzeum, jehož název je Palácové muzeum (čínsky v českém přepisu Ku-kung po-wu-jüan, pchin-jinem Gù​gōng​ Bó​wù​yuàn, znaky zjednodušené 故宫博物院, tradiční 故宮博物院). Roku 1987 bylo zapsáno na seznam světového dědictví UNESCO. V Číně je obecně známo jako Bývalý palác (čínsky v českém přepisu Ku-kung, pchin-jinem Gù​gōng, znaky zjednodušené 故宫, tradiční 故宮)

Source: Zakázané město

Spanish Ciudad Prohibida

La Ciudad Prohibida es un complejo palaciego situado en Pekín, capital de China. Durante casi quinientos años, desde la dinastía Ming hasta el final de la dinastía Qing, fue la residencia oficial de los emperadores de China y su corte, así como centro ceremonial y político del Gobierno chino. En la actualidad es una atracción turística que alberga el Museo del Palacio.

Construido entre 1406 y 1420 por orden del emperador Yongle, el complejo actual consta de 980 edificios y ocupa una superficie de 72 hectáreas. El conjunto ejemplifica la arquitectura palacial tradicional de China[1]​ y ha influido en el desarrollo cultural y arquitectónico de Asia oriental y otras partes del mundo, por lo que la Ciudad Prohibida fue declarada Patrimonio de la Humanidad en 1987.[1]​ Además, está considerado por la Unesco como el mayor conjunto de estructuras antiguas de madera en el mundo.

Desde 1925 la Ciudad Prohibida está gestionada por el Museo del Palacio, que cuenta con una extensa colección de obras de arte y objetos que pertenecieron a las colecciones imperiales de las dinastías Ming y Qing. Parte de la antigua colección del museo se encuentra hoy en el Museo Nacional del Palacio en Taipéi, pues ambos museos pertenecieron a la misma institución y se dividieron tras la Guerra Civil China.

Source: Ciudad Prohibida

French Cité interdite

La Cité interdite (chinois : 紫禁城 ; pinyin : Zǐjìnchéng), généralement appelé par les Chinois le palais ancien (故宫, gùgōng), également appelé musée du palais (故宫博物院, gùgōng bówùyuàn) est le palais impérial au sein de la Cité impériale de Pékin dont la construction fut ordonnée par Yongle, troisième empereur de la dynastie Ming, et réalisée entre 1406 et 1420. Ce palais, d'une envergure inégalée — il s'étend sur une superficie de 72 hectares — fait partie des palais les plus anciens et les mieux conservés de Chine. De nos jours, il est devenu un musée, le musée du palais, qui conserve les trésors impériaux de la civilisation chinoise ancienne et de très nombreuses œuvres d'art chinois de première importance : peintures, bronzes, céramiques, instruments de musique, laques, etc.

Source: Cité interdite

Italian Città Proibita

La Città Proibita (cinese: 紫禁城S, ZǐjìnchéngP, letteralmente "Città Purpurea") è stata il palazzo imperiale delle dinastie Ming e Qing. Situata nel centro di Pechino, occupava il centro dell'antico sistema di fortificazioni della città e per quasi cinque secoli è servita come abitazione degli imperatori e delle loro famiglie, così come centro cerimoniale e politico del governo cinese.

Costruito tra il 1406 e il 1420, il complesso si compone di 980 edifici per un totale di 8.707 camere e 720.000 m², che ne fanno il più grande palazzo del mondo. Il complesso esemplifica la sontuosa architettura tradizionale cinese e ha influenzato gli sviluppi culturali e architettonici di tutta l'Asia orientale.

Dal 1925 è diventata un museo, noto come "Museo del Palazzo", la cui vasta collezione di opere d'arte e manufatti è stata realizzata grazie alle collezioni imperiali delle dinastie Ming e Qing. Questo museo non va confuso con l'omonima istituzione di Taipei (Taiwan), il "Museo nazionale del palazzo": entrambi i musei derivano dalla stessa istituzione, ma furono divisi dopo la guerra civile cinese.

Nel 1987 la Città Proibita è stata inserita nell'elenco dei Patrimoni dell'umanità dell'UNESCO, che la riconosce come la più grande collezione di antiche strutture in legno che si sia conservata fino ai giorni nostri.

Source: Città Proibita

Japanese 紫禁城

紫禁城(しきんじょう、簡体字: 紫禁城、拼音: Zǐjìnchéng、満州語:ᡩᠠᠪᡣᡡᠷᡞᡩᠣᠷᡤᡞᡥᠣᠳᠣᠨ、転写:dabkūri dorgi hoton)または故宮(こきゅう、簡体字: 故宫、拼音: Gùgōng)は、中華人民共和国北京市に所在する明清朝の旧王宮である歴史的建造物。「北京と瀋陽の明・清王朝皇宮」の一つとしてユネスコの世界遺産(文化遺産)となっている。敷地面積は72haあり、世界最大の木造建築群が建ち並んでいる。別称の故宮とは「古い宮殿、昔の宮殿」という意味で、現在は博物館(故宮博物院)になっている。

Source: 紫禁城

pt Cidade Proibida

A Cidade Proibida (chinês: 紫禁城; pinyin: zǐ jìn chéng; literalmente "Cidade Proibida Púrpura") foi o palácio imperial da China desde meados da Dinastia Ming até ao fim da Dinastia Qing. Fica localizada no centro da antiga cidade de Pequim, acolhendo actualmente o "Palácio Museu". Durante quase 500 anos serviu como residência do Imperador e do seu pessoal doméstico, sendo o centro cerimonial e político do governo chinês.

O título de Cidade Proibida surgiu pelo facto de somente o imperador, sua família e empregados especiais terem permissão para entrar no conjunto de prédios do palácio. Trata-se de uma cidade dentro de outra cidade. Sede de um governo burocrático que comandou o império mais populoso da Terra, é o maior palácio do planeta, cujos rumores sempre apontavam a existência de 9 999 divisões. Durante séculos, apenas a família do imperador, além dos oficiais e empregados mais graduados tinham permissão de entrar no local. Qualquer outra pessoa que ousasse atravessar seus portões sem a devida autorização, era sujeita a uma execução sumária e dolorosa.

Construído entre 1406 e 1420, o complexo consiste em 980 edifícios sobreviventes, com 8 707 secções de salas e cobre 720 mil metros quadrados. O complexo exemplifica a arquitectura palaciana tradicional chinesa, tendo exercido influências culturais e arquitectónicas desenvolvidas na Ásia Oriental e um pouco por todo o lado. A Cidade Proibida foi declarada Património Mundial da Humanidade em 1987, estando listado pela UNESCO como a maior colecção de antigas estruturas de madeira preservadas no mundo.

No século XX, a Cidade Proibida sofreu uma transformação extraordinária. O século começou com o fim de uma dinastia e a expulsão do último imperador, Puyi. A sua queda em 1912 marcou o fim de séculos de imperialismo e 500 anos da Cidade Proibida como capital do Império Chinês. O palácio foi aberto como museu em 1925, mas sofreu com a ofensiva japonesa em 1931, quando cerca de 19 mil caixas contendo artefatos foram retiradas da Cidade Proibida. Os objectos voltaram a Pequim após a Segunda Guerra Mundial, mas o palácio estava totalmente degradado. O trabalho de recuperação começou em 1950. Notáveis e inesperadas descobertas ainda estão sendo feitas à medida que técnicas antigas são combinadas com a tecnologia moderna para restaurar um dos palácios mais magníficos da Terra.

Source: Cidade Proibida

zh 故宫

北京故宮,即紫禁城(满语:ᡩᠠᠪᡴᡡᡵᡳᡩᠣᡵᡤᡳᡥᠣᡨᠣᠨ,穆麟德:dabkūri dorgi hoton,太清:dabkvri dorgi hoton),是明清兩朝二十四位皇帝的皇宮。故宮始建于明成祖永樂四年(1406年),永樂十八年(1420年)落成;位於北京中軸線的中心,占地面積72萬平方米,建築面積約15萬平方米,為世界上現存規模最大的宮殿型建築。北京故宫是第一批全国重点文物保护单位、第一批国家5A级旅游景区,1987年入选《世界文化遗产》名录。故宮现为故宫博物院,藏品主要以明、清两代宫廷收藏为基础;是国家一级博物馆。

明初定都于南京应天府。建文年间,燕王朱棣自北平起兵,发动靖难之变。永樂元年(1403年),朱棣頒詔改北平为北京。从永乐元年至三年,多次下令从各地迁入人口至北京。永乐五年闰七月,朱棣颁诏开始营建紫禁城。主持营建工程为泰宁候陈珪、工部侍郎吴中、刑部侍郎张思恭、设计师蔡信。著名的工匠如石工陆祥、瓦工杨青等以及大量工匠,在永乐五年五月到达北京。建造紫禁城和改造北京是同时进行的,以原来的元大都城为基础改建。紫禁城工程开始後不久,即受到长陵建设及永乐八年、十一年两次北伐蒙古战役影响而放慢,至永乐十六年六月方才开始重新开工。

永乐十八年(1420年)十二月紫禁城完工。永乐十九年(1421年)正月初一,永乐迁都完成;同年五月遭雷擊,發生大火,前三殿被焚毀。1440年(正統五年),重建前三殿及乾清宮。1459年(天順三年),營建西苑。1557年(嘉靖三十六年),紫禁城大火,前三殿、奉天門、文武樓、午門全部被焚毀,至1561年才全部重建完工。萬曆二十五年(1597年),紫禁城大火,焚毀前三殿、後三宮。復建工程直至天啟七年(1627年)方完工。崇禎十七年(1644年),李自成軍攻陷北京,明朝滅亡。未幾,明朝山海關總兵吳三桂引清兵入關,擊敗李自成;李自成向陝西撤退前焚毀紫禁城,僅武英殿、建極殿、英華殿、南薰殿、四周角樓和皇極門未焚。同年清順治帝至北京,以皇极门为常朝场所,以未被焚毁的建极殿为位育宫,作为顺治帝寝宫;摄政王多尔衮在武英殿办公。顺治元年至顺治十四年,重建了午门、天安门、外朝前三殿,将位育宫恢复为建极殿,改名为保和殿;又整修内廷、东路、和西路的建築。康熙六年重建端门。康熙二十二年(1683年),開始部分重建紫禁城其餘被毀建築。雍正十三年(1735年),清高宗(乾隆帝)即位,此后六十年間對紫禁城大規模增建和改建。嘉慶十八年(1813年),天理教徒林清率教眾攻打紫禁城。光绪十四年(1886年)太和门护军值班室发生火灾,由于救火设施不完善,大火烧了两天,贞度门、太和门、昭德殿被焚。此次损坏直到光绪二十年才修复完毕。

民国元年(1912年)清帝溥仪退位後仍居於宮內。至民國十三年(1924年)十一月五日,黃郛攝政內閣公布修正清室優待條件第五條,廢除皇帝尊號,請廢帝溥儀出宮。政府代表李煜瀛、京師警衛司令鹿鍾麟、警察總監張璧,於六日接管皇宮,封存文物。後經攝政內閣核准,經一年之整理,故宮博物院於民國十四年國慶節(1925年10月10日)正式成立開幕。

2012年单日最高客流量突破18万人次,2019年全年客流量突破1900万人次,可以说是世界上接待游客最繁忙的博物馆。2013年5月18日起,故宫博物院范围内禁绝明火,全体员工、在院合作单位和游客,不管在室内和室外,不分开放区与工作区,一律禁止吸烟、禁用明火。

Source: 故宫

Wikivoyage

English Forbidden City (故宫 Gùgōng)

Built on the orders of Emperor Yongle, the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty, and the official residence of China's emperors during the most recent Ming and Qing Dynasties.

Address Beijing

English Forbidden City

Think of Beijing, and this might be the first thing that comes to your mind. China's former imperial palace with its 980 buildings is one of the largest museums in the country. Next to the southern gate towards the Tiananmen Square is the famous picture of Mao Zedong.

Last Edit2017-11-17

Russian Запретный город

Typesee
Last Edit2018-11-04

Chinese 故宫

故宫博物院有藏品180多万件,但其中最珍贵的正是作为明清宫殿的故宫本身。

French Cité Interdite (故宫 Gùgōng)

Situé au centre de la ville. L'arrêt de métro les plus proches est Tiān'ānmén Est (东天安们) et Tiān'ānmén Ouest (西天安门), prendre les sorties nord. Pour bien visiter le site, il faut prévoir une demi-journée au moins. À noter que des rénovations ont eu lieu en 2004-2005 et sont actuellement terminées (2013). On sort par l'entrée nord.La Cité Interdite a été construite lors de la dynastie Ming sous l'empereur Yongle (1402-1424) car ce dernier avait décidé de faire Pékin la ville Capitale de la Chine (1421). Construite en 14 ans (1406-1420), elle sert de résidence pour l'empereur, sa famille, ses serviteurs et des dirigeants politiques. C'est aussi le centre politique de l'empire.

Last Edit2015/04/10

Places located in Forbidden City

Hall of Supreme Harmony

The Hall of Supreme Harmony (Chinese: 太和殿; pinyin: Tài Hé Diàn; Manchu: ᠠᠮᠪᠠ ᡡᠸᠠᠯᡳᠶᠠᠮᠪᡠᡵᡝ ᡩᡝᠶᡝᠨ;Möllendorff: amba hūwaliyambure deyen) is the largest hall within the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. It is located at its central axis, behind the Gate of Supreme Harmony. Built above three levels of marble stone base, and surrounded by bronze incense burners, the Hall of Supreme Harmony is one of the largest wooden structures within China. It was the location where the emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties hosted their enthronement and wedding ceremonies. The name of the Hall was changed several times throughout the past few centuries, from its initial Fengtian Dian (奉天殿), later to Huangji Dian (皇极殿) in 1562 and to the current one by the Shunzhi Emperor of the Qing dynasty in 1645.

Together with the Hall of Central Harmony and Hall of Preserving Harmony, the three halls constitute the heart of the Outer Court of the Forbidden City.

The Hall of Supreme Harmony rises some 30 meters above the level of the surrounding square. It is the ceremonial center of imperial power, and the largest surviving wooden structure in China. It is eleven bays wide - with the main room being nine bays wide - and five bays deep, the numbers nine and five being symbolically connected to the majesty of the Emperor. The six pillars nearest the imperial throne are covered with gold, and the entire area is decorated with a dragon motif. The Dragon Throne, in particular, has five dragons coiled around the back and handrests. The screen behind it features sets of nine dragons, again reflecting the "nine-five" symbolism. The Hall of Supreme Harmony features an exquisite throne made of red sandalwood, and formerly used by the emperors of the Qing dynasty.

Set into the ceiling directly above the throne is an intricate caisson decorated with a coiled dragon, from the mouth of which issues a chandelier-like set of metal balls, called the "Xuanyuan Mirror", a reference to the Yellow Emperor, a mythological Chinese ruler. According to legend, the metal balls will fall and strike dead any usurper to the throne.

In the Ming dynasty, the emperors held court here to discuss affairs of state. During the Qing dynasty, emperors held court far more frequently. As a result, the location was changed to the Inner Court, and the Hall of Supreme Harmony was only used for ceremonial purposes, such as enthronements, investitures, and imperial weddings.The original hall was built in 1406 during the Ming dynasty, destroyed seven times by fires during the Qing dynasty, and rebuilt for the last time in 1695–1697. After a reconstruction in the 16th century, the dimensions of the hall were reduced from around 95m by 48m to its present measurements, 64m by 37m. Inability to find sufficiently large logs was cited as the cause for this change.

Meridian Gate

The Meridian Gate or Wumen (simplified Chinese: 午门; traditional Chinese: 午門; pinyin: Wǔmén; Manchu: ᠵᡠᠯᡝᡵᡤᡳᡩᡠᠯᡳᠮᠪᠠᡳᡩᡠᡴᠠ; Möllendorff: julergi dulimbai duka) is the southern and largest gate of the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. Unlike the other gates of the Forbidden City, the Meridian Gate has two protruding arms on either side, derived from ancient que towers traditionally used to decorate the main entrances of palaces, temples and tombs. The gate has five arches. The three central arches are close together in the main, central section; the two flanking arches are farther apart from the three central arches, and are located between the central section and the protruding arms. The centre arch was formerly reserved for the Emperor alone; the exceptions were the Empress, who could enter it once on the day of her wedding, and the top three scholars of the triennial civil service examinations, who left the exams through the central arch. All other officials and servants had to use the four side arches.

A series of buildings form the superstructure of the gate. The central one is a pavilion of nine bays wide, with double eaves. On each of the protruding side, a 13 bays-long building with a single eave, connects the two pyramidal-roofed pavilions that represented the que towers.

Its superstructure is also called the "Five Phoenix Turrets" because it is composed of five buildings. Imperial proclamations and almanacs were issued from the gate house. After successful campaigns, the Emperor received prisoners of war here, sometimes followed by mass decapitations.Although urban myth has it that senior officers were executed here in Imperial China; in reality only corporal punishment was actually carried out.

Behind the viewer is Upright Gate, the principal entrance to the imperial palace grounds.

When proceeding northward through the palace grounds, the next major gate encountered is the Gate of Supreme Harmony.

Palace of Heavenly Purity

The Palace of Heavenly Purity, or Qianqing Palace (Chinese: 乾清宫; pinyin: qiánqīng gōng; Manchu:ᡴᡳᠶᠠᠨᠴᡳᠩᡤᡠᠩ; Möllendorff: kiyan cing gung) is a palace in the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. It is the largest of the three halls of the Inner Court (the other two being the Hall of Union and the Palace of Earthly Tranquility), located at the northern end of the Forbidden City. During the Qing dynasty, the palace often served as the Emperor's audience hall, where he held council with the Grand Council.

The Palace of Heavenly Purity is a double-eaved building, and set on a single-level white marble platform. It is connected to the Gate of Heavenly Purity to its south by a raised walkway. In the Ming dynasty, it was the residence of the Emperor. The large space was divided into nine rooms on two levels, with 27 beds. For security, on any one night the Emperor would randomly choose from any of these beds. This continued through the early Qing dynasty. However, when the Yongzheng Emperor ascended the throne, he did not wish to inhabit the palace occupied by his father for 60 years. He and subsequent emperors lived instead at the smaller Hall of Mental Cultivation to the west. The Palace of Heavenly Purity then became the Emperor's audience hall, where he held court, received ministers and emissaries, and held banquets. At the centre of the Palace, set atop an elaborate platform, is a throne and a desk, on which the Emperor wrote notes and signed documents during councils with ministers. A caisson is set into the roof, featuring a coiled dragon.

Above the throne hangs a tablet with a right-to-left script reading zhèng dà guāng míng (正大光明), penned by the Shunzhi Emperor. This tablet has been translated several ways but the loose transliteral meaning is "let the righteous shine". It is often used as a Chinese idiom, meaning "to be decent, honest and magnanimous," or "to have no secret or do a shameless deed." Beginning with the Yongzheng Emperor, who himself had ascended the throne amid a succession dispute, Qing dynasty emperors had designated their heirs in secret, with one copy of the will hidden behind this tablet and another carried at all times by the Emperor himself.

The Palace Museum

The Palace Museum (Chinese: 故宫博物院; pinyin: Gùgōng Bówùyùan) is a national museum housed in the Forbidden City at the core of Beijing, China. It was established in 1925 after the last Emperor of China was evicted from his palace, and opened its doors to the public.

Constructed from 1406 to 1420, the museum consists of 980 buildings and covers 72 hectares (over 180 acres). It is home to over 1.8 million pieces of art, mostly from the imperial collection of the Ming and Qing dynasties. The 20th century saw its expansion through new acquisitions, transfers from other museums, and new archaeological discoveries.

According to the Beijing Evening Post, the museum has seen more than 17 million visitors in 2018, which would make it the world's most visited museum. It has an average of 15 million visitors annually since 2012. Due to this increased pressure, the management has set a daily limit for visitors of 80,000 since 2015 to protect the ancient structure and the experience.

Gate of Supreme Harmony

The Gate of Supreme Harmony (simplified Chinese: 太和门; traditional Chinese: 太和門; pinyin: Tàihémén; Manchu: ᠠᠮᠪᠠᡥᡡᠸᠠᠯᡳᠶᠠᠮᠪᡠᡵᡝᡩᡠᡴᠠ; Möllendorff: amba hūwaliyambure duka) is the second major gate in the south of the Forbidden City in Beijing, China.

The gate was originally built during the Ming dynasty, when it was called Fengtianmen (奉天門). Following the Manchu conquest of China, the gate was given its present Chinese and Manchu names. The gate burned down in 1886 due to a fire started by a tipped lamp in the guard room. The present gate dates from the rebuilding after this fire, which was completed in 1894.

In the Ming dynasty, the Emperor held morning court sessions at the Gate of Supreme Harmony to discuss state affairs with his ministers, although throughout most of the Ming dynasty the court sessions were purely ceremonial, a demonstration of the Emperor's diligence and the status of the titular first minister. In the Qing dynasty, when the Emperor attended court far more frequently, morning court sessions were held at the Gate of Heavenly Purity, which is much closer to the Emperor's living quarters. The Gate of Supreme Harmony was used occasionally for banquets and other ceremonies.

The gate is three bays deep and seven bays wide, covering a total area of 1371.4 square metres. It is flanked by two minor gates, Zhendu Gate to the west and Zhaode Gate to the east. The gate and the Meridian Gate form the north and south boundaries of a great plaza that is divided by a serpentine waterway, the Inner River of the Golden Water, which is spanned by a set of five bridges. On the north (inner) side of the gate is Harmony Square, leading to the grand Hall of Supreme Harmony, the ceremonial centre of the Forbidden City.

Many incense burners are arrayed around the stairs. The central stairway was reserved exclusively for the Emperor and his immediate attendants, as was the central entrance of Meridian Gate.

Palace of Earthly Tranquility

The Palace of Earthly Tranquility (simplified Chinese: 坤宁宫; traditional Chinese: 坤寧宮; pinyin: Kūn Níng Gōng; Manchu: ᡴᡠᠨ ᠨᡳᠩ ᡤᡠᠩ kun ning gung) is the northernmost of the three main halls of the Inner Court of the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. The other two halls are the Palace of Heavenly Purity and Hall of Union.

The Palace of Earthly Tranquility is a double-eaved building, nine bays wide and three bays deep. In the Ming dynasty, it was the residence of the Empress. In the Qing dynasty, large portions of the Palace were converted for Shamanist worship by the Manchu rulers. Thus, the front part of the hall featured shrines, icons, prayer mats, and a large kitchen where sacrificial meat was prepared. From the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor onwards, the Empress moved out of the Palace following the Emperor's move out of the Palace of Heavenly Purity. However, two rooms in the Palace of Earthly Harmony were retained for use on the Emperor's wedding night. The wedding ceremony would be held in the main room, and afterwards the Emperor and Empress would retire to one of these rooms.

Hall of Preserving Harmony

The Hall of Preserving Harmony (Chinese: 保和殿; pinyin: Bǎo Hé Diàn; Manchu: ᡝᠨᡨᡝᡥᡝᠮᡝ ᡥᡡᠸᠠᠯᡳᠶᠠᠮᠪᡠᡵᡝ ᡩᡝᠶᡝᠨ enteheme hūwaliyambure deyen) is one of the three halls of the Outer Court of the Forbidden City in Beijing, China, along with the Hall of Supreme Harmony and Hall of Central Harmony. Rectangular in plan, the Hall of Preserving Harmony is similar to, but smaller in scale than, the Hall of Supreme Harmony. It was used for rehearsing ceremonies, and was also the site of the final stage of the Imperial examination. Both of these halls also feature imperial thrones, though to a slightly smaller scale than that in the Hall of Supreme Harmony.

Hall of Union

The Hall of Union (Chinese: 交泰殿; pinyin: Jiāo Tài Diàn; Manchu: ᡤᡳᠶᠣᠣ ᡨᠠᡳ ᡩᡳᠶᠠᠨ giyoo tai diyan) is a building in the Forbidden City, in Beijing, China. It stands between the Palace of Heavenly Purity and the Palace of Earthly Tranquility. These three halls together constitute the centre of the Inner Court of the palace complex.

The hall is square in shape with a pyramidal roof. Stored here are the 25 Imperial Seals of the Qing dynasty, as well as other ceremonial items, including the clocks that set the official time in the palace (first a water clock, later a mechanical clock, both still displayed in the hall.

Palace of Tranquil Longevity

The Palace of Tranquil Longevity (Chinese:寧壽宮), literally, "peaceful old age palace," also called the Qianlong Garden, Qianlong Palace, Qianlong District or the Palace of Tranquility and Longevity, is a palace in Beijing, China, located in the northeast corner of the Inner Court of the Forbidden City.

Construction of the palace began on the Qianlong Emperor's orders in 1771, in preparation for his retirement, although the emperor himself never moved into the palace. Its beautiful apartments, pavilions, gates and gardens feature "some of the most elegant spaces at a time widely considered to be the pinnacle of Chinese interior design." Throughout the Qing dynasty, the palace was almost never used, largely because of the Qianlong Emperor's imperial decree ordering his retirement retreat remain unaltered.

Hall of Central Harmony

The Hall of Central Harmony (Chinese: 中和殿; pinyin: Zhōng Hé Diàn; Manchu: ᡩᡠᠯᡳᠮᠪᠠ ᡳ ᡥᡡᠸᠠᠯᡳᠶᠠᠮᠪᡠᡵᡝ ᡩᡝᠶᡝᠨ dulimba-i hūwaliyambure deyen) is one of the three halls of the Outer Court of the Forbidden City, in Beijing, China, along with the Hall of Supreme Harmony and Hall of Preserving Harmony. It is smaller than the other two halls, and is square in shape. It was used by the Emperor to prepare and rest before and during ceremonies.

Gate of Divine Might

The Gate of Divine Might or Gate of Divine Prowess (simplified Chinese: 神武门; traditional Chinese: 神武門; pinyin: Shénwǔmén) is the northern gate of the Forbidden City in Beijing, China.

Beijing Subway

The Beijing Subway is the rapid transit system of Beijing Municipality that consists of 23 lines including 19 rapid transit lines, two airport rail links, one maglev line and one light rail line, and 405 stations. The rail network extends 699.3 km (434.5 mi) across 12 urban and suburban districts of Beijing and into one district of Langfang in neighboring Hebei province. By route length in operation, the Beijing Subway is the world's longest metro system. With 3.8484 billion trips delivered in 2018, an average of 10.544 million trips per day, the Beijing Subway is the world's busiest metro system. Single-day ridership set a record of 13.7538 million on July 12, 2019.The Beijing Subway opened in 1969 and is the oldest metro system in mainland China. Before the system began its rapid expansion in 2002, the subway had only two lines. The existing network still cannot adequately meet the city's mass transit needs. Beijing Subway's extensive expansion plans call for 998.5 km (620.4 mi) of lines serving a projected 18.5 million trips every day by 2021. The most recent expansion came into effect on December 28, 2019, with the extensions of Line 7 and Batong line.

Nearby

Beijing Shejitan506 m
Imperial Ancestral Temple585 m
Forbidden City Concert Hall607 m
Zhongshan Park745 m
Duanmen754 m
Tiananmen821 m
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Image from Wikimedia Commons under CC-BY-SA-3.0 by Allen Timothy Chang (張華倫) (Allentchang)