Acropolis of Athens
ancient citadel above the city of Athens, Greece
Wikimedia Commons category: Acropolis of Athens
English Acropolis of Athens
The Acropolis of Athens is an ancient citadel located on a rocky outcrop above the city of Athens and contains the remains of several ancient buildings of great architectural and historic significance, the most famous being the Parthenon. The word acropolis is from the Greek words ἄκρον (akron, "highest point, extremity") and πόλις (polis, "city"). Although the term acropolis is generic and there are many other acropoleis in Greece, the significance of the Acropolis of Athens is such that it is commonly known as "The Acropolis" without qualification. During ancient times it was known also more properly as Cecropia, after the legendary serpent-man, Cecrops, the supposed first Athenian king.
While there is evidence that the hill was inhabited as far back as the fourth millennium BC, it was Pericles (c. 495–429 BC) in the fifth century BC who coordinated the construction of the site's most important present remains including the Parthenon, the Propylaia, the Erechtheion and the Temple of Athena Nike. The Parthenon and the other buildings were damaged seriously during the 1687 siege by the Venetians during the Morean War when gunpowder being stored in the Parthenon was hit by a cannonball and exploded.
Source: Acropolis of Athens
German Akropolis (Athen)
Die Akropolis in Athen (altgriechisch ἡ Ἀκρόπολις τῶν Ἀθηνῶν hē Akrópolis tôn Atʰēnôn; neugriechisch η Ακρόπολη της Αθήνας i Akrópoli tis Aθínas, „die Oberstadt Athens“) ist die wohl bekannteste Vertreterin der als Akropolis bezeichneten Stadtfestungen des antiken Griechenlands. Die Athener Akropolis mit ihren bemerkenswerten Gebäuden wird deshalb oft einfach „die Akropolis“ genannt.
Den ältesten Teil der Stadt Athen ließ Perikles nach der Zerstörung durch die Perser unter Leitung des berühmten Bildhauers Phidias von den Architekten Iktinos und Kallikrates sowie Mnesikles neu bebauen. Auf einem flachen, 156 Meter hohen Felsen stehen die zwischen 467 v. Chr. und 406 v. Chr. erbauten Propyläen, das Erechtheion, der Niketempel und der Parthenon, in dem eine kolossale Statue der Göttin Athene aus Gold und Elfenbein stand. Eine stark verkleinerte Replik der Statue befindet sich im Archäologischen Nationalmuseum in Athen.
Die Akropolis in Athen ist seit 1987 Teil des UNESCO-Welterbes. Laut Theodor Heuss ist die Akropolis neben Golgota und dem Kapitol einer der Hügel, auf denen Europa gründet. Der griechische Staat hat aus demselben Grund die Akropolis mit dem Europäischen Kulturerbe-Siegel ausgezeichnet.
Source: Akropolis (Athen)
Polish Akropol ateński
Akropol ateński (nw.gr. Ακρόπολη Αθηνών, od akropolis = górne miasto) – akropol w Atenach, położony na wapiennym wzgórzu o wysokości względnej 70 m (prawie 157 m n.p.m.), zamieszkany w neolicie, w okresie mykeńskim znajdował się tu pałac z megaronem, od VI w. p.n.e. miejsce kultu Ateny.
Świątynie zbudowane w okresie archaicznym zostały zniszczone podczas wojen perskich. Podczas odbudowy zainicjowanej przez Peryklesa powstał tu kompleks świątyń: Partenon, Erechtejon, Apteros, sanktuarium Artemidy Brauronia i Propyleje. Zniszczone rzeźby, elementy starszych budowli zostały użyte przy poszerzaniu tarasu w kierunku południowym (odnaleziono je podczas prac archeologicznych rozpoczętych w latach 70. XVIII wieku, w tzw. „rumowisku perskim”). Perykles odbudowę Akropolu powierzył Fidiaszowi, a w pracach uczestniczyli architekci: Iktinos, Mnesikles i Kallikrates.
W 1987 roku akropol ateński został wpisany na listę światowego dziedzictwa UNESCO.
Source: Akropol ateński
Russian Афинский Акрополь
Афи́нский Акро́поль (греч. Ακρόπολη Αθηνών) — акрополь в городе Афины, представляющий собой 156-метровый скалистый холм с пологой вершиной (ок. 300 м в длину и 170 м в ширину). Это было главное место для нахождения царя. Также внутри имелось немало храмов, где возносились молитвы греческим богам и воздавались жертвы. На сегодняшний день — это памятник древнего архитектурного искусства.
Хотя есть свидетельства того, что холм был заселён ещё в четвёртом тысячелетии до н. э., наиболее важные сооружения на этом месте, включая Парфенон, Пропилеи, Эрехтейон и Храм Ники Аптерос, были построены в V веке до н. э. по инициативе Перикла. Парфенон и другие здания были серьёзно повреждены при осаде венецианцами в 1687 году, во время турецко-венецианской войны (1684—1699), когда порох, хранившийся в Парфеноне, был поражён пушечным ядром и взорвался.
Source: Афинский Акрополь
Ukrainian Афінський акрополь
Афі́нський (Ате́нський) акро́поль — найвідоміший акрополь у світі, розташований у столиці Греції місті Афіни на пагорбі Акрополіс висотою 156 м над рівнем моря. Афінський акрополь був офіційно проголошений провідною пам'яткою загальноєвропейської культурної спадщини 26 березня 2007 року. 20 червня 2009 року був офіційно відкритий Новий музей акрополя.
Source: Афінський акрополь
cs Akropolis (Athény)
Athénská akropolis je asi nejznámější akropolí na světě. Akropole byla vybudována ve starověku, zejména mezi 13. a 5. stol. př. n. l. a tvořila dlouhou dobu politické, náboženské i kulturní centrum starověkého Řecka. Monumentální stavba byla postavena na výrazném skalním pahorku a spolu se svým hlavním chrámem – Parthenónem – dodnes tvoří hlavní dominantu města. Pro svou mimořádnou historickou hodnotu byla v roce 1987 zapsána na Seznam světového dědictví UNESCO.
Source: Akropolis (Athény)
Spanish Acrópolis de Atenas
La Acrópolis de Atenas (ἡ Ἀκρόπολις τῶν Ἀθηνῶν en griego antiguo, η Ακρόπολη της Αθήνας en griego moderno) puede considerarse la más representativa de las acrópolis griegas. La acrópolis era, literalmente, la ciudad alta (ἄκρο- 'cima, extremo, punta', πόλις 'ciudad) y estaba presente en la mayoría de las ciudades griegas, con una doble función: defensiva y como sede de los principales lugares de culto. La de Atenas está situada sobre una cima, que se alza 156 metros sobre el nivel de mar. También es conocida como Cecropia en honor del legendario hombre-serpiente, Cécrope, el primer rey ateniense.
La entrada a la Acrópolis se realiza por una gran puerta llamada los Propileos. A su lado derecho y frontal se encuentra el Templo de Atenea Niké. Una gran estatua de bronce de Atenea, realizada por Fidias, se encontraba originariamente en el centro. A la derecha de donde se erigía esta escultura se encuentra el Partenón o Templo de Atenea Pártenos (la Virgen). A la izquierda y al final de la Acrópolis está el Erecteión, con su célebre stoa o tribuna sostenida por seis cariátides. En la ladera sur de la Acrópolis se encuentran los restos de otros edificios, entre los que destaca un teatro al aire libre llamado Teatro de Dioniso, donde estrenaron sus obras Sófocles, Aristófanes y Esquilo.
La mayoría de los grandes templos fueron reconstruidos durante el gobierno de Pericles, en la edad dorada de Atenas.
Source: Acrópolis de Atenas
French Acropole d'Athènes
L’acropole d'Athènes (grec ancien : ἡ Ἀκρόπολις τῶν Ἀθηνῶν ; grec moderne : Ακρόπολη Αθηνών) est un plateau rocheux calcaire s'élevant au centre de la ville d'Athènes à laquelle elle a longtemps servi de citadelle, de l'Athènes antique à l'occupation ottomane, ainsi que de sanctuaire religieux durant l'Antiquité. Inscrite au patrimoine mondial de l'UNESCO, l'Acropole est actuellement un des sites touristiques les plus visités du monde.
La colline s'élève à 156 mètres. Sa partie plate s'étend sur un peu moins de 300 mètres d'est en ouest et 85 mètres du nord au sud dans son état naturel, mais les travaux du Ve siècle av. J.-C. l'ont élargie jusqu'à près de 150 mètres. L'Acropole n'est accessible que par le côté ouest.
Le plateau a d'abord été utilisé comme habitat, puis comme forteresse, avant de devenir, au cours de l'époque archaïque, puis de l'époque classique, un grand sanctuaire principalement consacré au culte d'Athéna, comprenant plusieurs temples, dont le Parthénon, l'Érechthéion et le temple d'Athéna Nikè. Les autres monuments remarquables de l'Acropole sont les Propylées, le théâtre de Dionysos, l'odéon d'Hérode Atticus.
Source: Acropole d'Athènes
Italian Acropoli di Atene
L'acropoli di Atene si può considerare la più rappresentativa delle acropoli greche. È una rocca, spianata nella parte superiore, che si eleva di 156 metri sul livello del mare sopra la città di Atene. Il pianoro è largo 140 m e lungo quasi 280 m. È anche conosciuta come Cecropia in onore del leggendario uomo-serpente Cecrope, il primo re ateniese.
L'Acropoli è stata dichiarata patrimonio dell'umanità dall'UNESCO nel 1987.
Source: Acropoli di Atene
アテナイのアクロポリスは世界でもっともよく知られているアクロポリス(ギリシャ語：akros, akron+ polis,)である。
ギリシャには多数のアクロポリスがあるが、アテナイのアクロポリスは一般的に「アクロポリス」で通じる点に意義がある。2007年3月26日、アクロポリスは正式にヨーロッパの文化遺産リストに卓越した遺産として発表された。このアクロポリスはアテネの海抜150 m (490 ft)の平らな岩の上に立っており、3ヘクタールの面積がある。 最初のアテナイの王ケクロプスにちなんだCecropiaという名でも知られていた。
pt Acrópole de Atenas
A Acrópole de Atenas (em grego: Ακρόπολη Αθηνών, transl.: Akrópoli Athinón) é a mais conhecida e famosa acrópole do mundo. Embora existam muitas outras acrópoles na Grécia, o significado da Acrópole de Atenas é tal que é comumente conhecida como A Acrópole, sem qualificação. É uma colina rochosa de topo plano que se ergue 150 metros acima do nível do mar, em Atenas, capital da Grécia, e abriga algumas das mais famosas edificações do mundo antigo, como o Partenon e o Erecteion.
As acrópoles da Antiga Grécia eram, como o próprio nome diz, "cidades altas" (do grego ἄκρος, "alto", e πόλις, "pólis"); construídas no ponto mais elevado das cidades, serviam originalmente como proteção contra invasores de cidades inimigas, e quase sempre eram cercadas por muralhas. Com o tempo, passaram a servir como sedes administrativas civis ou religiosas.
A Acrópole de Atenas foi construída por volta de 450 a.C., sob a administração do célebre estadista Péricles, que coordenou a construção de um dos mais importantes edifícios. Foi dedicada a Atena, deusa padroeira da cidade. A maior parte das estruturas da Acrópole de Atenas estão em ruínas; entre as que ainda estão de pé, estão o Propileu, o portal para a parte sagrada da Acrópole; o Partenon, templo principal de Atenas; o Erecteu, templo dos deuses do campo, e o Templo de Atena Nice, simbólico da harmonia da antiga cidade-estado de Atenas.O edifício e outros edifícios foram seriamente danificados durante o cerco pelos venezianos na Grande Guerra Turca quando o Parthenon estava sendo usado para o armazenamento de pólvora e foi atingido por uma bala de canhão.
Source: Acrópole de Atenas
雅典衛城（希臘語：Ακρόπολη，英語：Acropolis of Athens）位於希臘首都雅典，是最著名的衛城（要塞城市）之一。衛城是由平頂岩構成，位於海拔150米（512 英呎）。其亦被命名為西哥羅佩（Cecropia），以紀念常被描繪為半人半蛇的雅典首任國王凱克洛普斯（Kekrops或Cecrops）。
English Acropolis of Athens
qui occupe l'une des collines de la ville et où l'on retrouve le Parthénon, l'Érechthéion, les Propylées, le théâtre de Dionysos, le musée… Entrée environ . Consigne gratuite pour les sacs. Accès handicapé : il y a désormais un ascenseur donc l'accès est possible mais nécessite apparemment d'être accompagné.
Places located in Acropolis of Athens
The Parthenon (; Ancient Greek: Παρθενών; Greek: Παρθενώνας, Parthenónas) is a former temple on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their patron. Construction began in 447 BC when the Athenian Empire was at the peak of its power. It was completed in 438 BC, although decoration of the building continued until 432 BC. It is the most important surviving building of Classical Greece, generally considered the zenith of the Doric order. Its decorative sculptures are considered some of the high points of Greek art. The Parthenon is regarded as an enduring symbol of Ancient Greece, Athenian democracy and Western civilization, and one of the world's greatest cultural monuments. To the Athenians who built it, the Parthenon and other Periclean monuments of the Acropolis were seen fundamentally as a celebration of Hellenic victory over the Persian invaders and as a thanksgiving to the gods for that victory.The Parthenon itself replaced an older temple of Athena, which historians call the Pre-Parthenon or Older Parthenon, that was destroyed in the Persian invasion of 480 BC. Like most Greek temples, the Parthenon served a practical purpose as the city treasury. For a time, it served as the treasury of the Delian League, which later became the Athenian Empire. In the final decade of the 6th century AD, the Parthenon was converted into a Christian church dedicated to the Virgin Mary.
After the Ottoman conquest, it was turned into a mosque in the early 1460s. On 26 September 1687, an Ottoman ammunition dump inside the building was ignited by Venetian bombardment during a siege of the Acropolis. The resulting explosion severely damaged the Parthenon and its sculptures. From 1800 to 1803, Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin removed some of the surviving sculptures, now known as the Elgin Marbles, with the alleged permission of the Turks of the Ottoman Empire.Since 1975 numerous large-scale restoration projects have been undertaken; the latest is expected to finish in 2020.
The Lemnian Athena, or Athena Lemnia, was a classical Greek statue of the goddess Athena. According to geographer Pausanias (1.28.2), the original bronze cast was created by the sculptor Phidias circa 450–440 BCE, for Athenians living on the island of Lemnos to dedicate on the Acropolis of Athens.
It is unclear whether any copies survived. In 1891 German archeologist Adolf Furtwängler reconstructed two virtually identical Roman marble statues which he claimed were copies of the original, and identified two Roman marble copies of the head alone. These completed statues were recreated by joining a poorly preserved marble head (kept at Dresden) and a plaster cast of a similar Roman marble head, from the collection of Pelagio Palagi in Bologna, to a pair of identical bodies in Dresden. However, both reconstructions and attributions have been disputed; see below.
The sculptures concerned are:
Two full reconstructions (A and B) in the Staatliche Museum, Albertinum, Dresden, with bodies purchased in 1728 from the Chigi collection, Rome, Italy.
The Palagi head at the Archaeological Museum of Bologna, Italy.
A further head of this type, found at Pozzuoli is conserved in the Archaeological Museum of the Campi Phlegraei.As reconstructed, the completed statues are pastiches of two Roman marbles, one for the head and the other for the body. In them, Athena wears an unusual, cross-slung aegis decorated with the Gorgon's head. She is bare-headed, without a shield, holding her helmet out in her extended right hand, and with her left grasping her spear near the top of the shaft.
Furtwängler's identification of the original Athena Lemnia with the Dresden statues and Palagi head was based upon study of an engraved gem and by interpretation of the following passages from contemporary reports by Pausanias, Lucian, and Himerius:
Pausanias 1.28.2:[On the Acropolis] there are also two other dedications, a statue of Pericles, son of Xanthippus, and the most worth seeing of the works of Phidias, the statue of Athena called the Lemnian after those who dedicated it.Lucian, Imagines 4 and 6:(4) Lykinos: "Of all the works of Phidias, which one do you praise most highly?"
Polystratos: "Which if not the Lemnia, on which he thought fit to inscribe his name? Or the Amazon leaning on her spear?
(6) From the Knidia the sculptor [of Panthea] will take only the head, ... allowing the hair, forehead, and that lovely brow-line to remain just as Praxiteles made them, and the liquid yet clear and winsome gaze of the eyes shall stay as Praxiteles conceived it. But he will take the curve of the cheeks and the fore part of the face from Alkamenes' [Aphrodite] in the Gardens, plus her hands, graceful wrists, and supple, tapering fingers. But the facial contour, its softness, and her well-proportioned nose will be supplied by the Lemnian Athena of Phidias, who will also furnish the meeting of the lips and the neck, taken from the Amazon."Himerios, Oratio 68.4 (Colonna):Phidias did not always make images of Zeus, nor did he always cast Athena armed into bronze, but turned his art to the other gods and adorned the Maiden's cheeks with a rosy blush, so that in place of her helmet this should cover the goddess's beauty.Furtwängler's logic has been disputed. "Hartswick has shown that the Palagi head in Bologna cannot have come from Dresden statue B, that the gems Furtwängler employed could be post-antique, and that the sources are impossibly vague." (Stewart) Some of Hartwick's own conclusions have been disputed in turn, i.e., that the head of Dresden A is alien and the entire Palagi type is Hadrianic. Stewart remarks, "So while the type remains intact and looks Phidian, Furtwängler's further hypotheses concerning its identity and date (451-448) remain unproven."
The Older Parthenon or Pre‐Parthenon, as it is frequently referred to, constitutes the first endeavour to build a sanctuary for Athena Parthenos on the site of the present Parthenon on the Acropolis of Athens. It was begun shortly after the battle of Marathon (c. 490–88 BC) upon a massive limestone foundation that extended and leveled the southern part of the Acropolis summit. This building replaced a hekatompedon (meaning "hundred‐footer") and would have stood beside the archaic temple dedicated to Athena Polias.
The Old Parthenon was still under construction when the Persians sacked the city in the Destruction of Athens in 480 BC, and razed the acropolis during the Second Persian invasion of Greece. The existence of the proto‐Parthenon and its destruction was known from Herodotus and the drums of its columns were plainly visible built into the curtain wall north of the Erechtheum. Further material evidence of this structure was revealed with the excavations of Panagiotis Kavvadias of 1885–1890. The findings of this dig allowed Wilhelm Dörpfeld, then director of the German Archaeological Institute, to assert that there existed a distinct substructure to the original Parthenon, called Parthenon I by Dörpfeld, not immediately below the present edifice as had been previously assumed. Dörpfeld’s observation was that the three steps of the first Parthenon consist of two steps of poros limestone, the same as the foundations, and a top step of Karrha limestone that was covered by the lowest step of the Periclean Parthenon. This platform was smaller and slightly to the north of the final Parthenon, indicating that it was built for a wholly different building, now wholly covered over. This picture was somewhat complicated by the publication of the final report on the 1885–90 excavations indicating that the substructure was contemporary with the Kimonian walls, and implying a later date for the first temple.If the original Parthenon was indeed destroyed in 480 BC, it invites the question of why the site was left a ruin for 33 years. One argument involves the oath sworn by the Greek allies before the battle of Plataea in 479 BC declaring that the sanctuaries destroyed by the Persians would not be rebuilt, an oath the Athenians were only absolved from with the Peace of Callias in 450. The mundane fact of the cost of reconstructing Athens after the Persian sack is at least as likely a cause. However the excavations of Bert Hodge Hill led him to propose the existence of a second Parthenon begun in the period of Kimon after 468 BC. Hill claimed that the Karrha limestone step Dörpfeld took to be the highest of Parthenon I was in fact the lowest of the three steps of Parthenon II whose stylobate dimensions Hill calculated to be 23.51x66.888m.
One difficulty in dating the proto‐Parthenon is that at the time of the 1885 excavation the archaeological method of seriation was not fully developed: the careless digging and refilling of the site led to a loss of much valuable information. An attempt to make sense of the potsherds found on the acropolis came with the two-volume study by Graef and Langlotz published 1925–33. This inspired American archaeologist William Bell Dinsmoor to attempt to supply limiting dates for the temple platform and the five walls hidden under the re‐terracing of the acropolis. Dinsmoor concluded that the latest possible date for Parthenon I was no earlier 495 BC, contradicting the early date given by Dörpfeld. Further Dinsmoor denied that there were two proto‐Parthenons, and that the only pre‐Periclean temple was what Dörpfeld referred to as Parthenon II. Dinsmoor and Dörpfeld exchanged views in the American Journal of Archaeology in 1935.
The Propylaea was the monumental gateway to the Acropolis of Athens, and was one of several public works commissioned by the Athenian leader Pericles in order to rebuild the Acropolis at the conclusion of the Persian Wars. Pericles appointed his friend Phidias as the supervisor and lead architect of this massive project, which Pericles allegedly financed with funds appropriated from the treasury of the Delian League. According to Plutarch, the Propylaea was designed by the architect Mnesikles, about whom nothing else is known. Construction began in 437 BC and was terminated in 432, when the building was still unfinished.
The Propylaea was constructed of white Pentelic marble and gray Eleusinian marble or limestone, which was used only for accents. Structural iron was also used, though William Bell Dinsmoor analyzed the structure and concluded that the iron weakened the building. The structure consists of a central building with two adjoining wings on the west (outer) side, one to the north and one to the south.
The core is the central building, which presents a standard six-columned Doric façade both on the West to those entering the Acropolis and on the east to those departing. The columns echo the proportions (not the size) of the columns of the Parthenon. There is no surviving evidence for sculpture in the pediments.
The central building contains the gate wall, about two-thirds of the way through it. There are five gates in the wall, one for the central passageway, which was not paved and lay along the natural level of the ground, and two on either side at the level of the building's eastern porch, five steps up from the level of the western porch. The central passageway was the culmination of the Sacred Way, which led to the Acropolis from Eleusis.
Entrance into the Acropolis was controlled by the Propylaea. Though it was not built as a fortified structure, it was important that people not ritually clean be denied access to the sanctuary. In addition, runaway slaves and other miscreants could not be permitted into the sanctuary where they could claim the protection of the gods. The state treasury was also kept on the Acropolis, making its security important.
The gate wall and the eastern (inner) portion of the building sit at a level five steps above the western portion, and the roof of the central building rose on the same line. The ceiling in the eastern part of the central building was famous in antiquity, having been called by Pausanias (about 600 years after the building was finished) "...down to the present day unrivaled." It consisted of marble blocks carved in the shape of ceiling coffers and painted blue with gold stars.
The Brauroneion was the sanctuary of Artemis Brauronia on the Athenian Acropolis, located in the southwest corner of the Acropolis plateau, between the Chalkotheke and the Propylaia in Greece. It was originally dedicated during the reign of Peisistratos. Artemis Brauronia, protector of women in pregnancy and childbirth, had her main sanctuary at Brauron, a demos on the east coast of Attica.
The sanctuary on the Acropolis was of an unusual trapezoidal shape and did not contain a formal temple. Instead, a portico or stoa served that function. The stoa measured circa 38 by 6.8 m; it stood in front of the southern Acropolis wall, facing north. At its corners, there were two risalit-like side wings, each about 9.3 m long, the western one facing east and vice versa. North of the east wing stood a further short west-facing stoa. All of the sanctuary's western part, now lost, stood on the remains of the Mycenaean fortification wall. All that remains of the eastern pare are foundations for walls, cut into the bedrock, as well as some very few architectural members of limestone.
One of the wings contained the wooden cult statue (xoanon) of the goddess. Women who petitioned Artemis for help habitually dedicated items of clothing, which were draped around the statue. In 346 BC, a second cult statue was erected. According to Pausanias, it was a work by Praxiteles.
"There is also a sanctuary [at Athens] of Artemis Brauronia (of Brauron); the image is the work of Praxiteles, but the goddess derives her name from the parish of Brauron. The old wooden image is in Brauron, Artemis Tauria (of Tauros) as she is called."The entrance to the small sacred precinct, near its northeast corner, is still marked by seven rock-cut steps. They, and its northern enclosure, were probably created by Mnesicles during the building of the Propylaia. The date of the complex in its final shape is unclear, but a date around 430 BC, similar to that of the adjacent Propylaia, is commonly assumed.
If still in use by the 4th-century, the temple would have been closed during the persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire, when the Christian Emperors issued edicts prohibiting non-Christian worship.
The Temple of Athena Nike (Greek: Ναός Αθηνάς Νίκης, Naós Athinás Níkis) is a temple on the Acropolis of Athens, dedicated to the goddess Athena Nike. Built around 420 BC, the temple is the earliest fully Ionic temple on the Acropolis. It has a prominent position on a steep bastion at the south west corner of the Acropolis to the right of the entrance, the Propylaea. In contrast to the Acropolis proper, a walled sanctuary entered through the Propylaea, the Victory Sanctuary was open, entered from the Propylaea's southwest wing and from a narrow stair on the north. The sheer walls of its bastion were protected on the north, west, and south by the Nike Parapet, named for its frieze of Nikai celebrating victory and sacrificing to their patroness, Athena Nike.
Nike means "victory" in Greek, and Athena was worshipped in this form, representative of being victorious in war. The citizens worshipped the goddess in hopes of a successful outcome in the long Peloponnesian War fought against the Spartans and their allies.
The Erechtheion or Erechtheum (; Ancient Greek: Ἐρέχθειον, Greek: Ερέχθειο) is an ancient Greek temple on the north side of the Acropolis of Athens in Greece which was dedicated to both Athena and Poseidon.
Athena Parthenos (Ancient Greek: Ἀθηνᾶ Παρθένος) is a lost massive chryselephantine (gold and ivory) sculpture of the Greek goddess Athena, made by Phidias and his assistants and housed in the Parthenon in Athens; this statue was designed as its focal point. Parthenos 'maiden, virgin' was an epithet of Athena. There have been many replicas and works inspired by the statue, in both ancient and modern times. Athena was the Greek goddess of wisdom.
It was the most renowned cult image of Athens, considered one of the greatest achievements of the most acclaimed sculptor of ancient Greece. Phidias began his work around 447 BC. Lachares removed the gold sheets in 296 BC to pay his troops, and the bronze replacements for them were probably gilded thereafter; it was damaged by a fire about 165 BC but repaired. An account mentions it in Constantinople in the 10th century.
The Athena Promachos (Ἀθηνᾶ Πρόμαχος "Athena who fights in the front line") was a colossal bronze statue of Athena sculpted by Pheidias, which stood between the Propylaea and the Parthenon on the Acropolis of Athens. Athena was the tutelary deity of Athens and the goddess of wisdom and warriors. Pheidias also sculpted two other figures of Athena on the Acropolis, the huge gold and ivory ("chryselephantine") cult image of Athena Parthenos in the Parthenon and the Lemnian Athena.
The designation Athena Promachos is not attested before a dedicatory inscription of the early fourth century CE; Pausanias (1.28.2) referred to it as "the great bronze Athena" on the Acropolis.
The Pandroseion (pronounced: panδrosion, Greek: Πανδρόσειον) was a sanctuary dedicated to Pandrosus, one of the daughters of Cecrops I, the first king of Attica Greece, located on the Acropolis of Athens. It occupied the space adjacent to the Erechtheum and the old Temple of Athena Polias.
The sanctuary was a walled trapezoidal courtyard containing the altar of Zeus Herkeios (protector of the hearth, of the courtyard) under the sacred Olive Tree planted by Athena. At the west was an entrance stoa from the propylea. In the northeast corner was an elaborate entrance into the north porch and the entire Etrechtheion complex. At the east, there was also a small opening through which the Thalassa of Poseidon could be viewed. The south-east corner gave access to what some thought was the tomb of Cecrops. The sanctuary also contained the sacred olive tree which was presented by Athena to the city of Athens, after her victory over Poseidon in the contest for the land of Attica.
The Chalkotheke (Greek for "bronze store") was a structure on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece. Its name and function are only known from 4th century BC inscriptions. One decree orders the listing of all objects stored in the Chalkotheke and the erection of a stele inscribed with that list in front of the building.Remains of a structure discovered to the east of the sanctuary of Artemis Brauronia and immediately to the southwest of the Parthenon have been suggested to be those of the Chalkotheke. Only scant limestone foundations and rock-cut foundation trenches survive. The building stood in front of the southern Acropolis wall and was circa 43 m long and 14 m wide, fronted on its northern long side by a portico of 4.5 m width. To make room for that portico, the southernmost portion of the rock-cut steps leading up to the west facade of the Parthenon had to be cut away. Thus, the portico is assumed to have been an early fourth century BC addition, while the main part of the structure is thought to be roughly contemporary with the Parthenon, i.e. to date to the mid-fifth century. A major renovation appears to have taken place during Roman times, as indicated by numerous fragments of architectural members that are definitely Roman in date and have dimensions matching those of the Chalkotheke.
The Old Temple of Athena was an Archaic temple located on the Acropolis of Athens between the Older Parthenon and Erechtheion, built around 525-500 BC, and dedicated to Athena Polias, the patron deity of the city of Athens. It was destroyed by the Persians in 480 BC, during the Destruction of Athens. It was located at the center of the Acropolis plateau, probably on the remains of a Mycenaean palace. The complex is sometimes described by the name "Dörpfeld foundations", after the archaeologist who found the location of the temple. It was referred to as "Archaios Neos" (Old Temple) by the Greeks.
The Hekatompedon or Hekatompedos (Ancient Greek: ἑκατόμπεδος, from ἑκατόν, "hundred", and πούς, "foot"), also known as Ur-Parthenon and H–Architektur, was an ancient Greek temple on the Acropolis of Athens built from limestone in the Archaic period, and placed in the position of the present Parthenon.
The Sanctuary of Zeus Polieus was a walled open-air sanctuary dedicated to Zeus Polieus (city protector) around 500 BC on the Acropolis of Athens, sited to the Erechtheion's east.
None of its foundations have been discovered and its trapezoid plan and many entrances have been worked out from rock cuttings on the acropolis. The eastern area of the sanctuary is thought to have housed the oxen for the annual Bouphonia or ox-sacrificing. Its main entrance had a pediment.
Pausanias described the Homarium at Aegium in the 2nd century:
"[On the Akropolis of Athens :] There are statues of Zeus, one made by Leokhares and one called Polieus (Of the City, the customary mode of sacrificing to whom I will give without adding the traditional reason thereof. Upon the altar of Zeus Polieus they place barley mixed with wheat and leave it unguarded. The ox, which they keep already prepared for sacrifice, goes to the altar and partakes of the grain. One of the priests they call the ox-slayer, who kills the ox and then, casting aside the axe here according to the ritual runs away. The others bring the axe to trial, as though they know not the man who did the deed."
The Sanctuary of Pandion is the name sometimes given to the remains of a building located in the south-east corner of the Acropolis of Athens. Its foundations were found during the excavations for the construction of the Old Acropolis Museum (1865-1874).The 40m by 17m rectangular open-air building, dating to the later fifth-century, was divided into two nearly equal parts by a wall. It faced west-northwest and was entered through a projecting portico on the western side.The name stems from the presumption that this was the location of the heroon ("hero shrine") of Pandion, the eponymous hero of the Attic tribe Pandionis (usually assumed to be one of the two legendary kings of Athens, Pandion I or Pandion II), which was known to be located somewhere on the Acropolis.
The Arrephorion was a small building sited beside the north wall of the Acropolis of Athens and next to the wall of Pericles, identified in 1920 by the German architect Wilhelm Dörpfeld. It provided the lodgings for the Arrephoros, four noble Athenian girls who worked to prepare the peplos which would be used in the Panathenaic Games.
The building had a square floor with twelve meters a side which was composed of a single room which was about 38 metres squared with a portico that was four metres long. The courtyard had a rear exit via a staircase that connected with the temple of Aphrodite.
Its construction is dated at 470 B.C.
The Altar of Athena Polias was a former structure on the Acropolis of Athens dedicated to the goddess Athena.The altar's foundations were laid in 525 B.C. by the sons of the Athenian dictator Peisistratus, but may have overlaid an earlier temple constructed between 599 and 550. The altar itself stood within a narrow temple atop a marble pediment depicting battles between gods and giants. Images of Athena are shown as dominant and victorious within the armies of the gods.