borough of Berlin, Germany
Wikimedia Commons category: Mitte (district of Berlin)
Mitte is the first and most central borough of Berlin. The borough consists of six sub-entities: Mitte proper, Gesundbrunnen, Hansaviertel, Moabit, Tiergarten and Wedding.
It is one of the two boroughs (the other being Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg) which were formerly divided between East Berlin and West Berlin. Mitte encompasses Berlin's historic core and includes some of the most important tourist sites of Berlin like Museum Island, the Reichstag and Berlin Hauptbahnhof, Checkpoint Charlie, the TV tower, Brandenburg Gate, Unter den Linden, Potsdamer Platz, Alexanderplatz, the latter five of which were in former East Berlin.
German Bezirk Mitte
Mitte () ist der erste Verwaltungsbezirk von Berlin. Am 31. Dezember 2020 hatte er 385.748 Einwohner. Er ist der vom Altersdurchschnitt zweitjüngste der Stadt.
Der Bezirk entstand 2001 mit der Berliner Verwaltungsreform durch Zusammenlegung der bis dahin eigenständigen Bezirke Wedding, Tiergarten und Mitte.
Im Bezirk Mitte befinden sich sowohl der Regierungssitz als auch die meisten Verfassungsorgane der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Gleiches gilt für die Behörden und Institutionen des Landes Berlin.
In Mitte haben sich eine Vielzahl von Zweigstellen international tätiger Unternehmen angesiedelt. Globale Bekanntheit besteht außerdem durch zahlreiche kulturelle Institutionen und aufgrund seiner Stellung als Gründerzentrum.
Source: Bezirk Mitte
Polish Mitte (okręg administracyjny Berlina)
Mitte – pierwszy okręg administracyjny (Bezirk) Berlina. Liczy ponad 368 112 mieszkańców. Powstał w 2001 z połączenia dwóch okręgów administracyjnych Berlina Zachodniego: Tiergarten i Wedding oraz jednego okręgu administracyjnego Berlina Wschodniego – Mitte. Siedziba administracji okręgu znajduje się w ratuszu Tiergarten.
W okręgu znajdują się: Reichstag, Bundestag, Bundesrat, Alexanderplatz, Berliner Fernsehturm, Brama Brandenburska, Zamek w Berlinie, Plac Poczdamski, Nowa Synagoga, Unter den Linden, Wyspa Muzeów oraz większość ambasad.
Russian Митте (округ Берлина)
Митте (нем. Mitte — «центр») — центральный административный округ Берлина, в текущих границах существующий с 2001 года. Округ был образован в ходе масштабной реформы административного деления Берлина путём слияния трёх бывших самостоятельных округов Митте, Тиргартен и Веддинг. Реформа также ввела районы в пределах округов, и старый округ Митте получил статус района в пределах нового одноимённого округа.
Source: Митте (округ Берлина)
Ukrainian Мітте (округ Берліна)
Це стаття про адміністративний округ Берліна. Статтю про однойменний район у його складі див. Мітте (район Берліна)Мітте (нім. Mitte — центр) — центральний адміністративний округ Берліна.
У ході адміністративної реформи в 2001 р. було проведено об'єднання трьох округів: Мітте, Тіргартена і Веддінга, що утворили новий округ Мітте. У складі округу є однойменний район Мітте.
Source: Мітте (округ Берліна)
Berlín-Mitte o Mitte (Berlín Centro) es el principal distrito de Berlín (Mitte significa ‘centro’ en alemán). Este distrito alberga al centro histórico de la ciudad. El área incluye algunos de los más importantes lugares turísticos de Berlín, como la Isla de los Museos, la Puerta de Brandeburgo, la avenida Unter den Linden, y el Reichstag, entre otros.
En 2001, los distritos de Berlín fueron reorganizados. El antiguo distrito de Mitte, que pertenecía a Berlín Este, fue combinado con los distritos de Wedding y Tiergarten para formar una nueva organización al distrito de Mitte.
French Arrondissement de Mitte
Mitte [ˈmɪtə] est le 1er arrondissement administratif (Bezirk), au centre de Berlin, formé en 2001 par la fusion des anciens districts de Mitte (qui correspondait à l'actuel quartier de Mitte), Tiergarten et Wedding. Quand les Berlinois parlent de « Mitte », ils désignent le plus souvent le quartier de Berlin-Mitte et non pas l'arrondissement élargi.
L'arrondissement de Mitte comprend le siège du gouvernement allemand et la plupart des organes constitutionnels. C'est aussi le siège du Sénat de Berlin. Cet arrondissement est le seul, avec celui de Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, à mêler des anciens districts de Berlin-Ouest et de Berlin-Est.
Source: Arrondissement de Mitte
Italian Distretto di Mitte
Il distretto di Mitte (letteralmente: "centro") è il primo distretto di Berlino. Ha una superficie di 39,5 km² e una popolazione di 326.291 abitanti.
Source: Distretto di Mitte
Japanese ミッテ区 (ベルリン)
ミッテ区（ドイツ語: Bezirk Mitte）は、ドイツの首都ベルリンの区である。区コードは01であり、人口は約38万人である。首都の中枢を担い、憲法機関のほとんどが立地する。
Source: ミッテ区 (ベルリン)
米特（德語：Mitte，德语：[ˈmɪtə] （ 聆聽））是德国首都柏林的第一區，也是该市最中心的一个区。米特在德语中即“中部”之意。米特区是柏林的历史核心区，包括柏林最重要的一些旅游名胜，如博物馆岛、勃兰登堡门、菩提树下大街和德国国会大厦等，其中大部分曾经属于东柏林。
Places located in Mitte
Nazi Germany, officially known as the German Reich until 1943 and Greater German Reich in 1943–45, was the German state between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) controlled the country which they transformed into a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany quickly became a totalitarian state where nearly all aspects of life were controlled by the government. The Third Reich – meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire" – alluded to the Nazis' conceit that Nazi Germany was the successor to the earlier Holy Roman Empire (800–1806) and German Empire (1871–1918). The Third Reich, which Hitler and the Nazis referred to as the Thousand Year Reich, ended in May 1945 after just 12 years, when the Allies defeated Germany, ending World War II in Europe.
On 30 January 1933, Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany, the head of government, by the President of the Weimar Republic, Paul von Hindenburg, the head of State. The Nazi Party then began to eliminate all political opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934 and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the offices and powers of the Chancellery and Presidency. A national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer (Leader) of Germany. All power was centralised in Hitler's person and his word became the highest law. The government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitler's favour. In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending and a mixed economy. Using deficit spending, the regime undertook a massive secret rearmament program and the construction of extensive public works projects, including the construction of Autobahnen (motorways). The return to economic stability boosted the regime's popularity.
Racism, Nazi eugenics, and especially antisemitism, were central ideological features of the regime. The Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the master race, the purest branch of the Aryan race. Discrimination and the persecution of Jews and Romani people began in earnest after the seizure of power. The first concentration camps were established in March 1933. Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, and liberals, socialists, and communists were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. Christian churches and citizens that opposed Hitler's rule were oppressed and many leaders imprisoned. Education focused on racial biology, population policy, and fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed. Recreation and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, and the 1936 Summer Olympics showcased Germany on the international stage. Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, and Hitler's hypnotic oratory to influence public opinion. The government-controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others.
The Nazi regime dominated neighbours through military threats in the years leading up to war. Nazi Germany made increasingly aggressive territorial demands, threatening war if these were not met. It seized Austria and almost all of Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. Germany signed a non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union and invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, launching World War II in Europe. By early 1941, Germany controlled much of Europe. Reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas and a German administration was established in the remainder of Poland. Germany exploited the raw materials and labour of both its occupied territories and its allies.
Genocide and mass murder became hallmarks of the regime. Starting in 1939, hundreds of thousands of German citizens with mental or physical disabilities were murdered in hospitals and asylums. Einsatzgruppen paramilitary death squads accompanied the German armed forces inside the occupied territories and conducted the mass killings of millions of Jews and other Holocaust victims. After 1941, millions of others were imprisoned, worked to death, or murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps. This genocide is known as the Holocaust.
While the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 was initially successful, the Soviet resurgence and entry of the United States into the war meant that the Wehrmacht (German armed forces) lost the initiative on the Eastern Front in 1943 and by late 1944 had been pushed back to the pre-1939 border. Large-scale aerial bombing of Germany escalated in 1944 and the Axis powers were driven back in Eastern and Southern Europe. After the Allied invasion of France, Germany was conquered by the Soviet Union from the east and the other Allies from the west, and capitulated in May 1945. Hitler's refusal to admit defeat led to massive destruction of German infrastructure and additional war-related deaths in the closing months of the war. The victorious Allies initiated a policy of denazification and put many of the surviving Nazi leadership on trial for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials.
The German Empire or the Imperial State of Germany, also referred to as Imperial Germany, was the German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 until the November Revolution in 1918.
It was founded on 1 January 1871 when the south German states, except for Austria, joined the North German Confederation and the new constitution came into force changing the name of the federal state to the German Empire and introduced the title of German Emperor for Wilhelm I, King of Prussia from the House of Hohenzollern. Berlin remained its capital, and Bismarck, Minister-President of Prussia became Chancellor, the head of government. As these events occurred, the Prussian-led North German Confederation and its southern German allies were still engaged in the Franco-Prussian War.
The German Empire consisted of 26 states, most of them ruled by royal families. They included four kingdoms, six grand duchies, five duchies (six before 1876), seven principalities, three free Hanseatic cities, and one imperial territory. Although Prussia was one of four kingdoms in the realm, it contained about two thirds of Germany's population and territory. Prussian dominance had also been established constitutionally.
After 1850, the states of Germany had rapidly become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron (and later steel), chemicals, and railways. In 1871, Germany had a population of 41 million people; by 1913, this had increased to 68 million. A heavily rural collection of states in 1815, the now united Germany became predominantly urban. During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire was an industrial, technological, and scientific giant, gaining more Nobel Prizes in science than any other country. Between 1901 and 1918, the Germans won 4 Nobel Prizes in Medicine, 6 Prizes in Physics, 7 Prizes in Chemistry and 3 Prizes in Literature. By 1913, Germany was the largest economy in Continental Europe, surpassing the United Kingdom (excluding its Empire and Dominions), as well as the third-largest in the world, only behind the United States and the British Empire.From 1867 to 1878/9, Otto von Bismarck's tenure as the first and to this day longest-serving Chancellor was marked by relative liberalism, but it became more conservative afterwards. Broad reforms, and the Kulturkampf marked his period in the office. Late in Bismarck's chancellorship and in spite of his personal opposition, Germany became involved in colonialism. Claiming much of the leftover territory that was yet unclaimed in the Scramble for Africa, it managed to build the third-largest colonial empire at the time, after the British and the French ones. As a colonial state, it sometimes clashed with other European powers, especially the British Empire.
Germany became a great power, boasting a rapidly developing rail network, the world's strongest army, and a fast-growing industrial base. Starting very small in 1871, in a decade, the navy became second only to Britain's Royal Navy. After the removal of Otto von Bismarck by Wilhelm II in 1890, the Empire embarked on Weltpolitik – a bellicose new course that ultimately contributed to the outbreak of World War I. In addition, Bismarck's successors were incapable of maintaining their predecessor's complex, shifting, and overlapping alliances which had kept Germany from being diplomatically isolated. This period was marked by various factors influencing the Emperor's decisions, which were often perceived as contradictory or unpredictable by the public. In 1879, the German Empire consolidated the Dual Alliance with Austria-Hungary, followed by the Triple Alliance with Italy in 1882. It also retained strong diplomatic ties to the Ottoman Empire. When the great crisis of 1914 arrived, Italy left the alliance and the Ottoman Empire formally allied with Germany.
In the First World War, German plans to capture Paris quickly in the autumn of 1914 failed. The war on the Western Front became a stalemate. The Allied naval blockade caused severe shortages of food. However, Imperial Germany had success on the Eastern Front; it occupied a large amount of territory to its east following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. The German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917 contributed to bringing the United States into the war.
The high command under Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff increasingly controlled the country, but in October after the failed offensive in spring 1918, the German armies were in retreat, allies Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire had collapsed, and Bulgaria had surrendered. The Empire collapsed in the November 1918 Revolution with the abdications of its monarchs. This left a post-war federal republic and a devastated and unsatisfied populace, faced with post-war reparation costs of nearly 270 billion dollars, all in all leading to the rise of Adolf Hitler and Nazism.
The Berlin Wall (German: Berliner Mauer, pronounced [bɛʁˈliːnɐ ˈmaʊ̯ɐ] (listen)) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989. Construction of the wall was commenced by the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) on 13 August 1961. The Wall cut off West Berlin from surrounding East Germany, including East Berlin. The barrier included guard towers placed along large concrete walls, accompanied by a wide area (later known as the "death strip") that contained anti-vehicle trenches, beds of nails, and other defenses. The Eastern Bloc portrayed the Wall as protecting its population from fascist elements conspiring to prevent the "will of the people" from building a socialist state in East Germany.
GDR authorities officially referred to the Berlin Wall as the Anti-Fascist Protection Rampart (German: Antifaschistischer Schutzwall). The West Berlin city government sometimes referred to it as the "Wall of Shame", a term coined by mayor Willy Brandt in reference to the Wall's restriction on freedom of movement. Along with the separate and much longer Inner German border (IGB), which demarcated the border between East and West Germany, it came to physically symbolize the "Iron Curtain" that separated Western Europe and the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War.Before the Wall's erection, 3.5 million East Germans circumvented Eastern Bloc emigration restrictions and defected from the GDR, many by crossing over the border from East Berlin into West Berlin; from there they could then travel to West Germany and to other Western European countries. Between 1961 and 1989, the Wall prevented almost all such emigration. During this period, over 100,000 people attempted to escape, and over 5,000 people succeeded in escaping over the Wall, with an estimated death toll ranging from 136 to more than 200 in and around Berlin.
In 1989, a series of revolutions in nearby Eastern Bloc countries—in Poland and Hungary in particular—caused a chain reaction in East Germany that ultimately resulted in the demise of the Wall. After several weeks of civil unrest, the East German government announced on 9 November 1989 that all GDR citizens could visit West Germany and West Berlin. Crowds of East Germans crossed and climbed onto the Wall, joined by West Germans on the other side in a celebratory atmosphere. Over the next few weeks, euphoric people and souvenir hunters chipped away parts of the Wall. The Brandenburg Gate, a few meters from the Berlin Wall, was opened on 22 December 1989. The demolition of the Wall officially began on 13 June 1990 and was completed in November 1991. The "fall of the Berlin Wall" paved the way for German reunification, which formally took place on 3 October 1990.
The Weimar Republic (German: Weimarer Republik [ˈvaɪmaʁɐ ʁepuˈbliːk] (listen)), officially the German Reich (Deutsches Reich), also referred to as the German People's State (Deutscher Volksstaat) or simply the German Republic (Deutsche Republik), was the German state from 1918 to 1933. As a term, it is an unofficial historical designation that derives its name from the city of Weimar, where its constituent assembly first took place. The official name of the republic remained the German Reich as it had been during the German Empire because of the German tradition of substates.
Although commonly translated as "German Empire," Reich here better translates as "realm" in that the term does not necessarily have monarchical connotations in itself. The Reich was changed from a constitutional monarchy into a republic. In English, the country was usually known simply as Germany, and the Weimar Republic name became mainstream only in the 1930s.
Germany became a de facto republic on 9 November 1918 when Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated the German and Prussian thrones with no agreement made on a succession by his son Crown Prince Wilhelm; and became a de jure republic in February 1919 when the position of President of Germany was created. A national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for Germany was written and adopted on 11 August 1919. In its fourteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism (with contending paramilitaries) as well as contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War. Resentment in Germany towards the Treaty of Versailles was strong especially on the political right where there was great anger towards those who had signed and submitted to the treaty. The Weimar Republic fulfilled most of the requirements of the Treaty of Versailles although it never completely met its disarmament requirements and eventually paid only a small portion of the war reparations (by twice restructuring its debt through the Dawes Plan and the Young Plan). Under the Locarno Treaties, Germany accepted the western borders of the country by abandoning irredentist claims on France and Belgium, but continued to dispute the eastern borders and sought to persuade Austria to rejoin Germany, which it had been during the German Confederation of 1815 to 1866.
From 1930 onwards, President Paul von Hindenburg used emergency powers to back Chancellors Heinrich Brüning, Franz von Papen and General Kurt von Schleicher. The Great Depression, exacerbated by Brüning's policy of deflation, led to a surge in unemployment. In 1933, Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler as Chancellor with the Nazi Party being part of a coalition government. The Nazis held two out of the remaining ten cabinet seats. Von Papen as Vice Chancellor was intended to be the "éminence grise" who would keep Hitler under control, using his close personal connection to Hindenburg. Within months, the Reichstag Fire Decree and the Enabling Act of 1933 had brought about a state of emergency as it wiped out constitutional governance and civil liberties. Hitler's seizure of power (Machtergreifung) was permissive of government by decree without legislative participation. These events brought the republic to an end—as democracy collapsed, the founding of a single-party state began the dictatorship of the Nazi era.
The Congress of Berlin (13 June – 13 July 1878) was a meeting of the representatives of the era's six great powers in Europe (Russia, Great Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, Italy and Germany), the Ottoman Empire and four Balkan states (Greece, Serbia, Romania and Montenegro). It aimed at determining the territories of the states in the Balkan Peninsula after the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 and came to an end with the signing of the Treaty of Berlin, which replaced the preliminary Treaty of San Stefano, which had been signed three months earlier between Russia and the Ottoman Empire.
German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, who led the Congress, undertook to stabilise the Balkans, recognise the reduced power of the Ottoman Empire and balance the distinct interests of Britain, Russia and Austria-Hungary. At the same time, he tried to diminish Russian gains in the region and to prevent the rise of a Greater Bulgaria. As a result, Ottoman lands in Europe declined sharply, Bulgaria was established as an independent principality within the Ottoman Empire, Eastern Rumelia was restored to the Ottoman Empire under a special administration and the region of Macedonia was returned outright to the Ottoman Empire, which promised reform.
Romania achieved full independence; it was forced to turn over part of Bessarabia to Russia but gained Northern Dobruja. Serbia and Montenegro finally gained complete independence but with smaller territories, with Austria-Hungary occupying the Sandžak (Raška) region. Austria-Hungary also took over Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Britain took over Cyprus.
The results were first hailed as a great achievement in peacemaking and stabilisation. However, most of the participants were not fully satisfied, and grievances on the results festered until they exploded in the First and the Second Balkan Wars in 1912–1913 and eventually the First World War in 1914. Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece all received gains that were far less than they thought that they deserved.
The Ottoman Empire, then called the "sick man of Europe", was humiliated and significantly weakened, which made it more liable to domestic unrest and vulnerable to attack.
Although Russia had been victorious in the war that occasioned the conference, it was humiliated there and resented its treatment. Austria-Hungary gained a great deal of territory, which angered the South Slavs and led to decades of tensions in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Bismarck became the target of hatred by Russian nationalists and Pan-Slavists, and he later found that he had tied Germany too closely to Austria-Hungary in the Balkans.In the long run, tensions between Russia and Austria-Hungary intensified, as did the nationality question in the Balkans. The Congress was aimed at revising the Treaty of San Stefano and at keeping Constantinople within Ottoman hands. It effectively disavowed Russia's victory over the decaying Ottoman Empire during the Russo-Turkish War. The Congress returned territories to the Ottoman Empire that the earlier treaty had given to the Principality of Bulgaria, most notably Macedonia, thus setting up a strong revanchist demand in Bulgaria, which led to the 1912 First Balkan War.
The North German Confederation (German: Norddeutscher Bund) was the German federal state which existed from July 1867 to December 1870. Although de jure a confederacy of equal states, the Confederation was de facto controlled and led by the largest and most powerful member, Prussia, which exercised its influence to bring about the formation of the German Empire. Some historians also use the name for the alliance of 22 German states formed on 18 August 1866 (Augustbündnis). In 1870–1871, the south German states of Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt, Württemberg and Bavaria joined the country. On 1 January 1871, the country adopted a new constitution, which was written under the title of a new "German Confederation" but already gave it the name "German Empire" in the preamble and article 11.
The federal constitution established a constitutional monarchy with the Prussian king as the bearer of the Bundespräsidium, or head of state. Laws could only be enabled with the consent of the Reichstag (a parliament based on universal male suffrage) and the Federal Council (a representation of the states). During the four years of the North German Confederation, a conservative-liberal cooperation undertook important steps to unify (Northern) Germany with regard to law and infrastructure. The political system (and the political parties) remained essentially the same in the years after 1870.
The North German Confederation had nearly 30 million inhabitants, of whom eighty percent lived in Prussia.
East Berlin was the capital city of the German Democratic Republic from 1949 to 1990. Formally, it was the Soviet sector of Berlin, established in 1945. The American, British, and French sectors were known as West Berlin. From 13 August 1961 until 9 November 1989, East Berlin was separated from West Berlin by the Berlin Wall. The Western Allied powers did not recognise East Berlin as the GDR's capital, nor the GDR's authority to govern East Berlin. On 3 October 1990, the day Germany was officially reunified, East and West Berlin formally reunited as the city of Berlin.
The Berlin State Library (German: Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin; officially abbreviated as SBB, colloquially Stabi) is a universal library in Berlin, Germany and a property of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation. It is one of the largest libraries in Europe, and one of the most important academic research libraries in the German-speaking world. It collects texts, media and cultural works from all fields in all languages, from all time periods and all countries of the world, which are of interest for academic and research purposes. Some famous items in its collection include the oldest biblical illustrations in the fifth-century Quedlinburg Itala fragment, a Gutenberg Bible, the main autograph collection of Goethe, the world's largest collection of Johann Sebastian Bach's and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's manuscripts, and the original score of Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No. 9.
The Berlin Marathon (German: Berlin-Marathon, pronounced [bɛʁˈliːn ˈmaʁatɔn]) is a marathon event held annually on the streets of Berlin, Germany on the last weekend of September. Initiated in 1974, the event includes multiple races over the marathon distance of 42.195 kilometers (26 miles 385 yards), including elite level road running competitions for men and women, a race for the general public, an in-line skating race, a wheelchair race and a handcycle race.
Events are split over two days, with skaters competing on the marathon course on Saturday before the running events. Power walkers, hand-bikers, wheelchair riders, and a children's marathon (42.195 km) are also part of the marathon weekend, which is organised by SCC EVENTS. The elite running and wheelchair races are part of the World Marathon Majors, an annual series of top level races offering a $1 million prize purse. BMW is the current title sponsor for the race.
The city's flat course regularly produces fast performances and the marathon world record has been broken in Berlin on 11 occasions. The most recent was at the 2018 edition, where Eliud Kipchoge won the men's race in 2:01:39. Gladys Cherono set a new women's course record that same year with 2:18:11.
The Berlin Conference of 1884–1885, also known as the Congo Conference (German: Kongokonferenz) or West Africa Conference (Westafrika-Konferenz), regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power. The conference was organized by Otto von Bismarck, the first chancellor of Germany. Its outcome, the General Act of the Berlin Conference, can be seen as the formalisation of the Scramble for Africa, but some scholars of history warn against an overemphasis of its role in the colonial partitioning of Africa and draw attention to bilateral agreements concluded before and after the conference. The conference contributed to ushering in a period of heightened colonial activity by European powers, which eliminated or overrode most existing forms of African autonomy and self-governance.
The Kunsthaus Tacheles (Art House Tacheles) was an art center in Berlin, Germany, a large (9,000 m2 (97,000 sq ft)) building and sculpture park on Oranienburger Straße in the district known as Mitte. Huge, colorful graffiti-style murals are painted on the exterior walls, and modern art sculptures are featured inside. The building housed an artists collective from 1990 until 2012.
Originally called Friedrichstraßenpassage, it was built in 1907-1908 as a department store in the Jewish quarter (Scheunenviertel) of Berlin, next to the synagogue. During World
War II it served as a Nazi prison for a short while. Under GDR authorities it was later partially demolished. After the Berlin Wall had come down in 1989, it was taken over by artists, who called it Tacheles, Yiddish for "straight talking". The building contained studios and workshops, a nightclub, and a cinema. Outside, the garden featured an open-air exhibition of metal sculptures as well as galleries and studios for sculptors and painters. A part of the garden still remains open to the public.
The Gendarmenmarkt is a square in Berlin and the site of an architectural ensemble including the Berlin concert hall and the French and German Churches. In the centre of the square stands a monumental statue of poet Friedrich Schiller. The square was created by Johann Arnold Nering at the end of the seventeenth century as the Linden-Markt and reconstructed by Georg Christian Unger in 1773. The Gendarmenmarkt is named after the cuirassier regiment Gens d'Armes, which had stables at the square until 1773.
During World War II, most of the buildings were badly damaged or destroyed. Today all of them have been restored.
The Invalids' Cemetery (German: Invalidenfriedhof) is one of the oldest cemeteries in Berlin. It was the traditional resting place of the Prussian Army, and is regarded as particularly important as a memorial to the German Wars of Liberation of 1813–15.
The Kino International is a film theater in Berlin, built from 1961 to 1963. It is located on Karl-Marx-Allee in former East Berlin. It hosted premieres of the DEFA film studios until the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Today it is a protected historic building and one of the main venues of the annual Berlin Film Festival, the Berlinale.
The Palais am Festungsgraben (“Palace on the Moat”), originally known as the Palais Donner, is a stately building in Berlin’s Mitte subdistrict located behind, and facing, the ensemble of chestnut trees around the Neue Wache (“New Guardhause”), near the eastern terminus of the boulevard Unter den Linden. The name refers to its construction next to a redundant canal, gradually filled in by 1883, which had originally been a moat surrounding the 17th century city wall. Built as a private residence, it later housed a succession of Prussian government offices, and after World War II various cultural institutions in the Soviet sector of Berlin. After administrative authority was transferred to the newly established German Democratic Republic (GDR) in 1949 it hosted a succession of institutions established to further German-Russian contacts. Since German reunification it has accommodated a theater (Theater im Palais) and from 2004 an art gallery (Saarländische Galerie – Europäisches Kunstforum e.V.).
Kupfergraben is the name given to the 400-metre-long northern part of the canal-like left arm of the Spree, the Spreekanal, along the Museum Island (Museumsinsel) from the Eiserne Bridge (Eiserne Brücke) to the Spree at kilometre 16.31 in Berlin's Mitte district. The Spreekanal (SpK) with a length of two kilometres belongs to the federal waterway Spree-Oder-Wasserstraße, for which the Wasser- und Schifffahrtsamt Berlin is responsible.
Am Kupfergraben is the name of a street running parallel on the west bank of the Kupfergraben, which is opposite the Museum Island (Museumsinsel).
Hackescher Markt ("Hacke's Market") is a square in the central Mitte locality of Berlin, Germany, situated at the eastern end of Oranienburger Strasse. It is an important transport hub and a starting point for the city's nightlife.
Mohrenstraße is a street in central Berlin, Germany. It runs from west to east between Wilhelmstraße and Hausvogteiplatz, and partially forming the southern edge of Gendarmenmarkt. The Berlin U-Bahn station Mohrenstraße is located at its western end, and is served by the . A number of buildings in the street date to the mid-19th century (Gründerzeit) or were reconstructed after World War II, and are protected historic buildings.
In August 2020, in the context of broader re-examinations of European colonial history spurred by the George Floyd protests, the Berlin borough assembly announced that Mohrenstraße would be renamed Anton-Wilhelm-Amo-Straße, honoring Anton Wilhelm Amo, the first African to receive a doctorate from a German university.
Karl-Liebknecht-Straße is a major street in the central Mitte district of the German capital Berlin. It is named after Karl Liebknecht (1871–1919), one of the founders of the Communist Party of Germany. The street connects the Unter den Linden boulevard with the Prenzlauer Allee arterial road leading to the northern city limits. Although part of the street dates back to medieval times, most of the buildings at its side were built in the 1960s, when East Berlin's centre was redesigned as the capital of East Germany.
Berlin Jannowitzbrücke is a station in the Mitte district of Berlin. It is served by the S-Bahn lines , , , and and the U-Bahn line . It is located next to the Jannowitz Bridge (Jannowitzbrücke) and is a public transport interchange. South of the station is Brückenstraße (“bridge street”) and north of it are Holzmarkstrasse and Alexanderstraße. The station also serves as a stop for various private excursion and sightseeing boats, among others, those of the Stern und Kreisschiffahrt and Reederei Riedel companies.
The National Kaiser Wilhelm Monument (Kaiser-Wilhelm-Nationaldenkmal) was a memorial structure in Berlin dedicated to Wilhelm I, first Emperor of a unified Germany. It stood in front of the Stadtschloss from 1897 through 1950, when both structures were demolished by the GDR government.
The monument was an equestrian statue of the first German Emperor Wilhelm I, on the Spree Canal along the Eosander portal on the west side of the Berlin City Palace. The design of the memorial was directly influenced by Wilhelm I's grandson, Kaiser Wilhelm II, and the neo-baroque style of the memorial is the main work of sculptor Reinhold Begas, who had also designed the Victory Boulevard and the Bismarck National Memorial.
The planned Monument to Freedom and Unity is to be located on the base originally constructed for the monument.
The Goethe Monument (German: Das Goethe-Denkmal) is an outdoor 1880 memorial to German writer and statesman Johann Wolfgang von Goethe by Fritz Schaper, located in Tiergarten in Berlin, Germany. The sculpture's base depicts the allegorical figures of Drama, Lyric Poetry (and Amor), and Science.
Köllnischer Park is a public park located near the River Spree in Mitte, Berlin. It is named after Cölln, one of the two cities which came together to form Berlin; the park location was originally just outside it. Approximately 1 hectare (2.5 acres) in area, the park came into existence in the 18th and 19th centuries on the site of fortifications. It was redesigned as a public park in 1869–73 and was further modified in the 20th century with the addition of first a bear enclosure, the Bärenzwinger, and later a permanent exhibition of sculpture, the Lapidary. The park is a registered Berlin landmark.The park contains five buildings, the first of them being the Märkisches Museum, a complex of buildings. The complex was built between 1907 and 1907, and was designed by Ludwig Hoffmann. The second was the Bärenzwinger, next to the south entrance to the park. This was built between 1938 and 1939 on the site of a former sanitation depot, and was designed by Ludwig Hoffmann. The Bärenzwinger has contained up to five bears at once, however no longer contains any following the death of Schnute, Berlin's last official city bear in 2015. At the east end of the park there is the Landesversicherungsanstalt building, a large office building designed by Alfred Messel, to be the headquarters of the Landesversicherungsanstalt, an insurance company. The fourth building is the AOK building, a six-storey steel-framed office building built from purplish brick, on the south side of the park, opposite the Bärenzwinger. The final building is the Volksbadeanstalt, on the western side of the park. It was built in 1888 as a public bath.
The State Council Building (German: Staatsratsgebäude) is a building in the former East Berlin that hosted the State Council (German: Staatsrat), the collective head of state of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany or GDR), from 1964 to 1990.
Rathaus Bridge (German: Rathausbrücke, "Town Hall Bridge") is a bridge in the central Mitte district of Berlin, Germany. Rebuilt in 2012, it is one of the oldest connections between the historic city centres of Alt-Berlin and Cölln across the Spree river. It is named after the nearby Rotes Rathaus city hall.
Friedrichs Bridge (German: Friedrichsbrücke) is a bridge in Berlin, one of several crossing the Spree between Museum Island and the mainland portion of Mitte. It connects Anna-Louisa-Karsch-Straße with Bodestraße. Since its creation in 1703, the bridge has been repeatedly renovated. It is considered a protected monument.
Saint Michael's (German: Sankt-Michael-Kirche) is a former Roman Catholic parish in Berlin, Germany, dedicated to the Archangel Michael. It is noted for its historic church in Mitte (former Luisenstadt), near the border between Berlin-Mitte locality and Kreuzberg. The church was built between 1851 and 1861, and also served as a garrison church for Catholic soldiers. It was heavily damaged by bombing during the Second World War and partially reconstructed in the 1950s. It is protected as a historical monument in Berlin.
Diana is an outdoor 1898 bronze sculpture of Diana by Reinhold Felderhoff, cast in 1910 and installed in the Kolonnadenhof outside the Alte Nationalgalerie in Berlin, Germany.
The statue of Max Planck by Bernhard Heiliger at Humboldt University of Berlin in Berlin-Mitte, Germany.
Königsstädtisches Theater was the name of different theater buildings in Berlin in the 19th and 20th century.
The first Königsstädtisches Theater was built by Carl Theodor Ottmer in Königsstadt, a former settlement neighboring Berlin that is today part of the boroughs of Mitte, Prenzlauer Berg and Friedrichshain, and opened in 1824. Its first director was Karl Friedrich Cerf, who managed it until his death in 1845. An Aktiengesellschaft from its inception, the theater had to rely on financial support by the King of Prussia. When the monarchy stopped its support in 1840, the theater fell on hard times. Involvement in the German revolutions of 1848–49 meant that the theater was closed in 1851 by royal decree.Cerf's son, Rudolf Cerf, had inherited the license and the name from his father, and named the building used by Circus Renz "Königsstädtisches Theater" from 1852 to 1854. The license then was sold to Franz Wallner, a popular actor, who used the name for his own Wallner-Theater until 1858. In the following years, a number of different theaters used the name but none achieved any lasting success.
The original theater building was used for various purposes after its closure. It was demolished in 1932.
The statue of Hermann von Helmholtz by Ernst Herter is located at Humboldt University of Berlin in Berlin-Mitte, Germany.
The statue of Wilhelm von Humboldt by Martin Paul Otto is located at Humboldt University of Berlin in Berlin-Mitte, Germany.