capital city of Lesser Poland Voivodeship in southern Poland
Wikimedia Commons category: Kraków
Kraków (, also US: , UK: , Polish: [ˈkrakuf] (listen)), written in English as Krakow and traditionally known as Cracow, is the second-largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in Lesser Poland Province, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków was the official capital of Poland until 1596 and has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, economic, cultural and artistic life. Cited as one of Europe's most beautiful cities, its Old Town was declared the first UNESCO World Heritage Site in the world.
The city has grown from a Stone Age settlement to Poland's second-most-important city. It began as a hamlet on Wawel Hill and was reported as a busy trading centre of Central Europe in 965. With the establishment of new universities and cultural venues at the emergence of the Second Polish Republic in 1918 and throughout the 20th century, Kraków reaffirmed its role as a major national academic and artistic centre. The city has a population of about 780,000, with approximately 8 million additional people living within a 100 km (62 mi) radius of its main square.After the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany at the start of World War II, the newly defined Distrikt Krakau (Kraków District) became the capital of Germany's General Government. The Jewish population of the city was forced into a walled zone known as the Kraków Ghetto, from which they were sent to German extermination camps such as the nearby Auschwitz, and the Nazi concentration camps like Płaszów. However, the city was spared from destruction and major bombing.
In 1978, Karol Wojtyła, archbishop of Kraków, was elevated to the papacy as Pope John Paul II—the first non-Italian pope in 455 years. Also that year, UNESCO approved Kraków's entire Old Town and historic centre as its first World Heritage List alongside Quito. Kraków is classified as a global city with the ranking of "high sufficiency" by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Its extensive cultural heritage across the epochs of Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque architecture includes the Wawel Cathedral and the Royal Castle on the banks of the Vistula, the St. Mary's Basilica, Saints Peter and Paul Church and the largest medieval market square in Europe, the Rynek Główny. Kraków is home to Jagiellonian University, one of the oldest universities in the world and traditionally Poland's most reputable institution of higher learning.
In 2000, Kraków was named European Capital of Culture. In 2013, Kraków was officially approved as a UNESCO City of Literature. The city hosted the World Youth Day in July 2016.
Krakau (polnisch Kraków [ˈkrakuf]), die Hauptstadt der Woiwodschaft Kleinpolen, liegt im Süden Polens rund 250 km südwestlich von Warschau und ist mit etwa 775.000 Einwohnern die zweitgrößte Stadt des Landes.
Die kreisfreie Stadt an der oberen Weichsel war bis 1596 Hauptstadt des Königreichs Polen, ist Sitz der – nach Prag – zweitältesten mitteleuropäischen Universität und entwickelte sich zu einem Industrie-, Wissenschafts- und Kulturzentrum. Zahlreiche Bauwerke der Gotik, der Renaissance, des Barock und späterer Epochen der Kunstgeschichte prägen das Stadtbild. Noch im 21. Jahrhundert wird Krakau als „heimliche Hauptstadt Polens“ bezeichnet und gilt als das „Jahrhunderte alte Zentrum des polnischen Staatswesens“. Dies zeigt sich auch an der ehemaligen Residenz auf dem Wawelhügel mit dem Schloss und der Kathedrale, wo die meisten der Könige Polens sowie zahlreiche Persönlichkeiten von herausragender historischer Bedeutung begraben sind.
Heute ist Krakau ein lebendiger Technologie- und Biowissenschaftsstandort für Zentral- und Osteuropa und nach Warschau der zweitgrößte Büromarkt in Polen. Krakau ist auch ein bedeutender kultureller, künstlerischer und wissenschaftlicher Dreh- und Angelpunkt, z. B. mit dem Hauptsitz des Nationalen Zentrums für Wissenschaft (polnisch: Narodowe Centrum Nauki), dem Zentrum der Wissens- und Innovationsgemeinschaft und dem EIT. In der Nähe von Krakau befindet sich eines der bedeutendsten Filmstudios in Mitteleuropa. Nach Angaben des World Investment Report 2011 der UNO-Konferenz für Handel und Entwicklung (UNCTAD) ist Krakau der aufstrebendste Standort für Investitionen in Innovationen der Welt. Innerhalb eines 100-km-Umkreises leben etwa acht Millionen Menschen.Im Jahr 2000 war Krakau Kulturhauptstadt Europas. Krakau war einer der Austragungsorte der Volleyball-Weltmeisterschaft der Männer 2014 sowie der Handball-Europameisterschaft 2016. Außerdem war Krakau 2014 Sportstadt Europas. 2016 fand in Krakau der Weltjugendtag der katholischen Kirche statt.
Kraków (łac. Cracovia, niem. Krakau, jid. קראָקע Kroke) – miasto na prawach powiatu położone w południowej Polsce nad Wisłą, drugie co do liczby mieszkańców i powierzchni miasto kraju, formalna stolica Polski do 1795 r. i miasto koronacyjne oraz nekropolia królów Polski, od 1000 r. nieprzerwanie stolica diecezji krakowskiej (jednej z pięciu w ówczesnej Polsce), a od 1925 archidiecezji i metropolii. Lokowany przed 1228 rokiem, ponownie w 1257 r.. Od odzyskania niepodległości w 1918 r. miasto wojewódzkie (od 1998 r. siedziba władz województwa małopolskiego), jest także centralnym ośrodkiem metropolitalnym aglomeracji krakowskiej i Krakowskiego Obszaru Metropolitalnego. Kraków uznawany jest za stolicę historycznej Małopolski. Leży na obszarze Bramy Krakowskiej, Niecki Nidziańskiej i Pogórza Zachodniobeskidzkiego.
W Krakowie są główne siedziby m.in.: Polskiej Akademii Umiejętności, Narodowego Centrum Nauki, Instytutu Nafty i Gazu – Państwowego Instytutu Badawczego, Instytutu Zootechniki – Państwowego Instytutu Badawczego, Krajowej Szkoły Sądownictwa i Prokuratury, dowództwa Sił Specjalnych RP będącego jednocześnie jednym z kilku dowództw sił specjalnych NATO, Centrum Operacji Lądowych – Dowództwa Komponentu Lądowego, Polskiego Związku Narciarskiego, Operacyjno-Strategiczne Dowództwo Unii Europejskiej, Centrum Eksperckiego Kontrwywiadu NATO, Narodowe Centrum Radioterapii Hadronowej, Centralnego Ośrodka Turystyki Górskiej.
W mieście działają placówki kulturalne o znaczeniu i statusie narodowym, m.in. Narodowy Stary Teatr, Muzeum Narodowe, Panteon Narodowy, Archiwum Narodowe, Biblioteka Jagiellońska, Instytut Książki, Instytut Literatury, Centrum Operacji Specjalnych, Narodowe Centrum Rugby.
Miasto na prawach powiatu pełni funkcję centrum administracyjnego, kulturalnego, edukacyjnego, naukowego, gospodarczego, usługowego i turystycznego. Kraków jest drugim co do wielkości, po Warszawie, rynkiem nowoczesnej powierzchni biurowej (ponad milion metrów kwadratowych powierzchni biurowej), a także jednym z kluczowych węzłów kolejowych w Polsce.
Краков (польск. Kraków [ˈkrakuf]), полное официальное название — Столичный королевский город Краков (польск. Stołeczne Królewskie Miasto Kraków, лат. Cracovia, нем. Krakau) — город на юге Польши, расположенный на реке Висле в 295 км от Варшавы. Население насчитывает 779 115 жителей (2019), вместе с ближайшими пригородами — свыше 1 млн, является вторым по населению (ненамного опережает Лодзь) и площади городом Польши после Варшавы. Административный центр Малопольского воеводства, центр архиепархии.
Столица Польши с 1038 по 1596 год, до 1734 года — место коронации польских королей. Богат историческими памятниками, центр города занесён в Список объектов всемирного наследия ЮНЕСКО. Один из крупнейших научных, культурных, экономических и религиозных центров Польши, популярное место туризма.
Культурная столица Европы в 2000 году.
Кра́ків (пол. Kraków, нім. Krakau, лат. Cracoviae) — місто в Польщі на березі Вісли, 760 тисяч жителів (2004), з найближчими передмістями 1,2 млн. Адміністративний центр Малопольського воєводства.
Друге за величиною та кількістю мешканців місто у Польщі після Варшави; одне з найстаріших міст Польщі, з тисячолітньою історією, багатою культурною і архітектурною спадщиною. В період Австро-Угорщини один з центрів Західної Галичини.
Культурна столиця Європи 2000 року. Історичний центр Кракова з 1978 року належить до списку Всесвітньої спадщини ЮНЕСКО.
Krakov (polsky Kraków výslovnost , latinsky Cracovia, litevsky Krokuva, německy Krakau, anglicky Cracow, maďarsky Krakkó, ukrajinsky Краків, tatarsky Краков, v jidiš קראקע Krůke) je metropole Malopolského vojvodství v jižním Polsku, v historické zemi Malopolsku. Leží na řece Visle, v nejužším místě tzv. Krakovské brány, která spojuje Sandoměřskou kotlinu s kotlinou Osvětimskou. V roce 2020 měl Krakov 780 981 obyvatel (druhé největší polské město podle počtu obyvatel). Rozloha města činí 327 km². (Druhé největší město podle rozlohy). Podle informací z městského úřadu, v Krakově bydlí něco málo přes milion obyvatel. 250 000 obyvatel nenahlášených k pobytu + 50 000 Ukrajinců. Studuje zde 150 000 studentů.
Krakov je historická rezidence polských králů s hradem Wawel a katedrálou, sídlo starobylé univerzity a arcibiskupství. Staré město s množstvím historických památek i parků je oblíbený cíl turistů a je zapsáno na seznamu Světového dědictví UNESCO.
Cracovia (en polaco, Kraków [ˈkrakuf] ) es la capital del voivodato de Pequeña Polonia (Województwo małopolskie) y una de las ciudades más grandes, antiguas e importantes de Polonia. Situada en las márgenes del río Vístula, tiene una población de 766 000 habitantes (3 millones en su área metropolitana), lo que la convierte en la segunda ciudad más poblada de Polonia.
Cracovia tradicionalmente ha sido uno de los centros económicos, científicos, culturales y artísticos del país. Durante gran parte de la historia polaca fue la capital. Por eso, todavía es el corazón de Polonia para muchos ciudadanos. Actualmente, Cracovia es un centro muy importante del turismo local e internacional, con más de ocho millones de turistas al año. El centro histórico de Cracovia fue declarado, junto con el centro histórico de Quito, como Patrimonio de la Humanidad por la Unesco en 1978. También fue Capital Europea de la Cultura en el año 2000.
Cracovia fue la sede del Campeonato Mundial de Voleibol en 2014 y del Campeonato Europeo de Balonmano de 2016. La ciudad ha sido también escogida como la Ciudad Europea del Deporte en el año 2014 y como la sede de la Jornada Mundial de la Juventud del año 2016.
Cracovie (en polonais : Kraków /ˈkrakuf/ ) est le chef-lieu de la voïvodie de Petite-Pologne (Małopolska). Située au bord de la Vistule, cette ancienne capitale de la Pologne, riche de mille ans d'histoire est considérée comme le véritable centre culturel et intellectuel du pays, qui s’enorgueillit de posséder l’une des plus anciennes universités d’Europe Centrale, l'Université Jagellonne.
Avec 774 839 habitants intra muros et 1 452 496 dans l'agglomération, Cracovie est la deuxième ville de Pologne.
Les origines de Cracovie remontent au VIIe siècle, ce qui en fait l'une des plus anciennes et des plus importantes villes de Pologne. Son centre historique se situe au pied de la colline du Wawel, siège du château royal et de la cathédrale avec la nécropole des rois de Pologne.
Au fil des siècles, la ville s'épanouit en tant que siège des monarques polonais, puis connaît, du XVe siècle au XVIIe siècle, un véritable essor comme capitale de la République des Deux Nations, le plus grand État de l'Europe d'alors, dont témoigne aujourd'hui la grande variété et richesse de son patrimoine architectural (gothique, renaissance et baroque).
Karol Wojtyła était évêque puis archevêque de Cracovie, avant de devenir pape en 1978, le premier pape non italien depuis 455 ans. La même année, le centre historique de Cracovie a été inscrit au patrimoine mondial de l'UNESCO,. Elle est également classée « ville mondiale » par le GaWC avec le rang de « Haute suffisance ». Elle a été capitale européenne de la culture en 2000.
La ville a reçu le Championnat du monde masculin de volley-ball en 2014 et le Championnat d'Europe masculin de handball en janvier 2016. Cracovie a été l'hôte des Journées mondiales de la jeunesse du 26 au 31 juillet 2016, qui ont réuni près de 2,5 millions de personnes.
Cracovie a été 29e parmi les villes les plus polluées d'Europe en mars 2020, selon l'IQAir .
Cracovia (in polacco Kraków, [ˈkrakuf] ; in tedesco Krakau, denominazione completa Stołeczne Królewskie Miasto Kraków - Città Reale Capitale di Cracovia) è una città polacca di 761.873 abitanti della Polonia meridionale, una delle più antiche ed estese dello Stato.
È capoluogo del relativo voivodato della Piccola Polonia dal 1999; in precedenza è stata capoluogo del voivodato di Cracovia dal 1308. Inoltre è un grande centro commerciale e industriale (stoffe, pelli, macchine agricole, cartiere, editoria) e un importante nodo ferroviario.
Cracovia è stata a lungo la capitale del paese e tutt'oggi rimane il suo principale centro culturale, artistico e universitario - è sede tra le altre della Università Jagellonica, la più antica del paese e una delle più antiche d'Europa.
Con più di otto milioni di visitatori ogni anno, è la principale meta turistica internazionale della Polonia.
È famosa per il suo piccolo e curato centro storico, iscritto nella Lista UNESCO come Patrimonio dell'umanità, per la sua immensa piazza centrale e per la fascia di giardini del Planty, ampia da 50 a 100 metri che circonda completamente il centro.Inoltre è il primo sito UNESCO ad essere considerato tale in Europa ed è anche il primo centro abitato considerato patrimonio dell'umanità al mondo (1978). Nel Castello di Wawel è stato a lungo custodito il famoso dipinto di Leonardo da Vinci, Dama con l'ermellino, prima esposto all'interno del Museo Czartoryski, ubicato nella Città Vecchia. Dall'estate del 2017 il quadro è visibile al Museo Nazionale di Cracovia.
È sede arcivescovile dal X secolo e ne fu vescovo dal 1964 al 1978 Karol Wojtyła, futuro papa Giovanni Paolo II. Capitale europea della cultura nel 2000, nel 2013 ha ricevuto dall'UNESCO anche il riconoscimento di città della letteratura, prima città dell'Europa continentale a ricevere questo titolo e nel 2014 la città è stata scelta come Città europea dello sport. Cracovia è stata città organizzatrice del campionato mondiale di pallavolo nel 2014 e del campionato europeo di pallamano nel 2016. Inoltre, nel 2016, ha ospitato la 31ª Giornata mondiale della gioventù.
クラクフ（Kraków, ['krakuf], 独: Krakau クラカウ, 仏: Cracovie クラコヴィー）は、ポーランド南部にある都市で、マウォポルスカ県の県都。
Cracóvia (em polaco: Kraków; em latim: Cracovia; em alemão: Krakau) é uma cidade no sul da Polônia, na voivodia da Pequena Polônia. Estende-se por uma área de 326,85 km², com 774 839 habitantes, segundo os censos de 2019, com uma densidade de 2371 hab/km². Localiza-se no sul do país, nas margens do rio Vístula. É uma das cidades mais antigas da Polônia e a segunda maior cidade do país. A capital da Polônia em 1039-1079, 1138-1290 e 1296-1596 (oficialmente até 1795), a principal cidade da coroação dos reis da Polônia e até 1609-1611 a cidade residencial dos reis da Polônia.
O Centro Histórico de Cracóvia foi inscrito pela UNESCO em 1978 na lista do Património Mundial. Citada como uma das cidades mais bonitas da Europa, bem como um dos destinos mais particulares no mundo, a cidade tem uma herança cultural extensa que atravessa as épocas do gótico, renascimento e barroco incluindo a Catedral Wawel e o Castelo Real nas margens do rio Vístula, a basílica de Santa Maria, a igreja dos Santos Pedro e Paulo e a maior praça medieval da Europa, a Rynek Główny. A cidade é sede de uma das mais antigas e prestigiosas universidades da Europa, a Universidade Jaguelônica.
Foi Capital Europeia da Cultura em 2000 e foi uma das subsedes do Campeonato Mundial de Voleibol de 2014. A cidade foi sede da Jornada Mundial da Juventude de 2016.A cidade sediou a Jornada Mundial da Juventude de 2016, o Ano Santo da Misericórdia, em honra a São João Paulo II, que instituiu a Festa da Divina Misericórdia, e a Santa Faustina Kowalska, impulsionadora desta devoção.
克拉科夫（波蘭語：Kraków[ˈkrakuf]（ 听）；德語：Krakau，克拉考）是波蘭第二大城市，為小波蘭省首府，也是波蘭的舊都。位於波蘭南部，鄰近克拉科夫-琴斯托霍瓦高地，維斯瓦河貫穿市區，全市人口約76萬人。在波蘭歷史上，克拉科夫自1038年起成為首都，直至1596年遷都華沙為止；波蘭在1795年至1918年亡國期間，則以該城為中心先後建立了克拉科夫自由市及克拉科夫大公國。其擁有非法定的城市全銜，稱為克拉科夫王家首都市（Stołeczne Królewskie Miasto Kraków）。
Places located in Kraków
Lesser Poland, often known by its Polish name Małopolska (Latin: Polonia Minor), is a historical region situated in southern and south-eastern Poland. Its capital and largest city is Kraków. Throughout centuries, Lesser Poland developed a separate culture featuring diverse architecture, folk costumes, dances, cuisine, traditions and a rare Lesser Polish dialect. The region is rich in historical landmarks, monuments, castles, natural scenery and UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
The region should not be confused with the modern Lesser Poland Voivodeship, which covers only the southwestern part of Lesser Poland. Historical Lesser Poland was much larger than the current voivodeship that bears its name. It reached from Bielsko-Biała in the southwest as far as to Siedlce in the northeast. It consisted of the three voivodeships of Kraków, Sandomierz and Lublin.
It comprised almost 60,000 km2 in area; today's population in this area is about 9,000,000 inhabitants. Its landscape is mainly hilly, with the Carpathian Mountains and Tatra Mountain Range in the south; it is located in the basin of the upper Vistula river. It has been noted for its mighty aristocracy (magnateria) and wealthy nobility (szlachta).Between the 14th and 18th century, the Lesser Poland Province of the Polish Crown also encompassed the historical region of Red Ruthenia. In the era of partitions, the southern part of Lesser Poland became known as Galicia, which was under Austrian control until Poland regained its independence in 1918. As a result of this long-lasting division, many inhabitants of the northern part of Lesser Poland (including those in such cities as Lublin, Radom, Kielce and Częstochowa) do not recognize their Lesser Polish identity.
However, while Lublin (Lubelskie) was declared an independent Voivodeship as early as 1474, it still has speakers of the Lesser Polish dialect.
Across history, many ethnic and religious minorities existed in Lesser Poland as they fled persecution from other areas or countries. Poland's once tolerant policy towards these minorities allowed them to flourish and create separate self-governing communities. Some minorities still remain, but are on the verge of extinction, most notably Wymysorys-speaking Vilamovians, Halcnovians, Gorals, Lemkos, Uplanders, and once Polish Jews and Walddeutsche Germans.
The Collegium Novum (Latin: "New College") is the Neo-Gothic main building of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland, built in 1873-1887. Based on a design by architect Feliks Księżarski to match the oldest building of the University, it was opened for the 500th anniversary of the University's foundation. The Collegium Novum replaced a former academic boarding school called Jeruzalem, consumed by fire in the mid-19th century.
The building contains lecture rooms including an impressive assembly hall (called Aula), Rector's, Deans', and other university authorities' offices as well as those of a number of prominent professors. It is the Jagiellonian University's administrative centre.
Collegium Novum was opened on June 14, 1887, commencing several years of debate and construction. The decision regarding the allocation of subsidies was made in the Austro-Hungarian capital of Vienna, with the University's vital interests defended by Julian Dunajewski, the then Austrian Finance Minister. The work might not have begun at all had it not been for his commitment, as well as that of his brother Cardinal Albin Dunajewski.
Already at the time of its grand opening, the assembly hall (Aula) of the new building was too small to accommodate all guests on all occasions, even though the number of students did not exceed 1200 with approximately one hundred professors. A debate arose whether it was necessary to invite professors' wives to grand ceremonies. Most academics, in keeping with the prevailing trend of the time, were against the inviting of women guests. In the University's archives there is a formal invitation reading: “Zoll requires no ticket and wishes the ceremony to be exclusively male.” In another statement, Edward Janczewski “expresses his opposition to the idea of admitting ladies to the ceremonies.” Until the end of First World War, a portrait of emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, painted by Kazimierz Pochwalski, hung in the Aula of the Collegium. On October 31, 1918 a group of University students tore it to pieces, manifesting their determination for the recreation of an independent Republic of Poland. However, a number of other paintings did survive, including portraits of the University's founding fathers Casimir the Great and Władysław Jagiełło dating back to the early 1860s, a picture of Queen Jadwiga painted in 1900 to celebrate her Jubilee, as well as the works of Jan Matejko, including his painting entitled Copernicus: Conversation with God. The chairs in the assembly hall were designed by Tadeusz Stryjeński.
On the upper floor of the College there is a lecture hall named after Józef Szujski – now used by historians – with the commemorative plaque in remembrance of the events surrounding Nazi German action called Sonderaktion Krakau where 183 professors were arrested and later sent to camps in Sachsenhausen and Dachau. The plaque reads: "For the freedom of spirit and service to science and nation of Jagiellonian University professors deceitfully and forcefully taken away from this hall and imprisoned by the Nazi occupant on November 6, 1939."
The restoration of the Neo-Gothic architectural structure took place at the end of the 20th century. It was faced with a number of challenges, notably the task of reviving the original form of the building while simultaneously improving its functionality as an educational facility. The restoration was carried out on its façade in 1994 along with the modernization of the assembly hall, which was completed in 1999. The collaboration of specialists from various disciplines allowed for both restoration and functional needs of the Collegium to be met successfully.
The Emeryk Hutten-Czapski Museum (Also the Czapski Museum) is a branch of the National Museum of Kraków, 12 Pilsudski Street, Kraków.Count Emeryk Hutten-Czapski,(born 17 October 1828 in Stankow near Minsk, died 23 July 1896 in Kraków) was a Vice-Governor of St Petersburg and an important collector of books, prints, and numismatics. He built his collection at his family estate in Stankow, today in Belarus. Fearing for the safety of the collection, being close to Russia, he moved the collection to Cracow. In 1894, he purchased a 19th century palace, on what is today 12 Pilsudski Street, and built an addition to house his collection. He personally catalogued the collection. He died in 1896, before the addition was finished. His wife, Baroness Elzbieta Meyendorff, completed the construction of the addition, and in 1904, as per her husband´s request, donated the collection to the city of Cracow. The museum displays the Czapski crest on the outside, along with the inscription on the pediment: "Monumentis Patriae Naufragio Ereptis" (Patriotic Monuments Saved from the Destruction of the Storm).The collection originally contained more than 11,000 coins, medals, orders, prints and books. Upon the death of Bogdan Hutten-Czapski, a nephew of Emeryks, his large collection of books and prints was added to the museum library. The museum continually received generous donations from other coin collectors. Important donations came from Wiktor Wittyg, Zygmunt Zakrzewski, Franciszek Piekosinski, Karol Halama, and Piotr Uminski, among others. At the outbreak of World War I, in 1914, the collection was stored in barrels. The museum was reopened in 1917 and once again at the outset of World War II, in 1939, was closed and the collection was again safeguarded. Since 1939 the museum remained closed to the public. With funding from the European Regional Development Fund of the European Economic Community the project of the European Centre of Numismatics in Cracow could be completed, and the restored museum and gardens were opened once again to the public in 2013. The museum has been renovated to a world class museum with touch screens throughout, explaining the different exhibits in Polish and English.In April 2016, on the gardens of the museum, a pavilion was erected to commemorate Emeryk´s grandson, Jozef Czapski. Jozef was an eminent Polish intellectual, writer, painter and critic. The modern pavilion displays Czpaski´s diaries, paintings, and contains various multimedia presentations. The layout of the Pavilion´s permanent exhibition was designed by Krystyna Zachwatowicz and her husband, the film director Andrjey Wajda.
Old Synagogue is an Orthodox Jewish synagogue in the Kazimierz district of Kraków, Poland. In Yiddish it was referred to as the Alta Shul. It is the oldest synagogue building still standing in Poland, and one of the most precious landmarks of Jewish architecture in Europe. Until the German invasion of Poland in 1939, it was one of the most important synagogues in the city as well as the main religious, social, and organizational centre of the Kraków Jewish community. In 1794 General Tadeusz Kościuszko spoke from the synagogue to gain the Jewish support in the struggle for Polish independence. A plaque in the entrance hall commemorates this event:
"The Jews proved to the world that whenever humanity can gain, they would not spare themselves." – General Tadeusz Kosciuszko
The Synagogue was built in 1407 or 1492; the date of building varies with several sources. The original building was rebuilt in 1570 under the watchful eye of an Italian architect Mateo Gucci. The rebuilding included the attic wall with loopholes, windows placed far above ground level, and thick, masonry walls with heavy buttressing to withstand siege, all features borrowed from military architecture. There was further reconstruction work in 1904 and in 1913. The Old synagogue is a rare, surviving example of a Polish Fortress synagogue.The synagogue was completely devastated and ransacked by the Germans during World War II. Its artwork and Jewish relics, looted. During the occupation, the synagogue was used as a magazine. In 1943, 30 Polish hostages were executed at its wall. The Old Synagogue was renovated from 1956 to 1959 and currently operates as a museum. It is a Division of the Historical Museum of Kraków, with particular focus on Kraków's Jews. The exhibits are divided into themes dealing with birth, prayer rituals, diet, divorce and death. "The beautiful women's prayer room, which dates from the 17th century, is often used to hold temporary exhibitions."
Kupa Synagogue (Polish: Synagoga Kupa) is a 17th-century synagogue in Kraków, Poland. It is located in the former Jewish quarter of Kazimierz developed from a neighborhood earmarked in 1495 by King Jan I Olbracht for the Jewish community, which has been transferred from the budding Old Town. Kupa Synagogue serves Kraków's Jewish community as one of the venues for religious ceremonies and cultural festivals, notably the annual Jewish Culture Festival in Kraków.The Synagogue was founded in 1643 by the Kazimierz Jewish district's kehilla (a municipal form of self-government), as a foundation of the local qahal. A contribution of 200 zlotys by the Jewish goldsmiths' guild helped to bring the construction to its successful completion. The Synagogue was built in a baroque style with a square prayer hall inside. The building underwent many renovations throughout the centuries. In 1830-1834 the two-storey annex was added with entrance hall and washrooms. In 1861 the western wing was built. At the end of the 19th century, the synagogue was joined with the adjacent building. Following ravages of World War II, it has been meticulously restored. Its northern wall connects with the remnants of the medieval city-wall of Kazimerz while its southern flank faces Warchauera Street. The colorful interior of the Kupa Synagogue serves as an exhibition hall and the venue for musical events.
The Synagogue is richly decorated with paintings from the 1920s featured on walls, the ceiling and in the women's section. The depictions include the holy places of Hebron, Tiberias, and Jerusalem. There are also Biblical scenes and illustrations to verses in Psalms, such as the painting showing people standing by the rivers of Babylon (Psalms 137:1-3), or musical instruments (Psalms 150:3-6). Another painting depicts Noah's ark including the figure of Noah – quite unusual since the use of human images was very rare in Jewish art. The signs of the Zodiac are painted over the women's gallery. The artist, although unidentified, was clearly professional. There are also remnants of earlier paintings from the 17th to 18th centuries. The older drawings are ornamental, with leaves and fruit surrounding texts. A carved wood and stucco Torah Ark, from the early 17th century, adorns the interior.
The National Museum in Kraków (Polish: Muzeum Narodowe w Krakowie), popularly abbreviated as MNK, established in 1879,is the biggest museum in Poland and is the main branch of Poland's National Museum, which has several independent branches with permanent collections around the country. The Museum consists of 21 departments which are divided by art period; 11 galleries, 2 libraries, and 12 conservation workshops. It holds some 780,000 art objects, spanning from classical archeology to modern art, with special focus on Polish painting.
Płaszów (Polish pronunciation: [ˈpwaʂuf]) or Kraków-Płaszów was a Nazi concentration camp operated by the SS in Płaszów, a southern suburb of Kraków, in the General Governorate of German-occupied Poland. Most of the prisoners were Polish Jews who were targeted for destruction by Nazi Germany during the Holocaust. Many prisoners died because of executions, forced labor, and the poor conditions in the camp. The camp was evacuated in January 1945, before the Red Army's liberation of the area on 20 January.
Floriańska Street or St. Florian's Street (Polish: ulica Floriańska w Krakowie, Latin: platea Sancti Floriani) is one of the main streets in Kraków Old Town and one of the most famous promenades in the city. The street forms part of the regular grid plan of Stare Miasto (the Old Town), the merchants' town that extends the medieval heart of the city, which was drawn up in 1257 after the destruction of the city during the Tatar invasions of 1241.
The Ludowy Theatre (literally: People's Theatre, Polish: Teatr Ludowy) in Kraków, located at Osiedle Teatralne housing development in district Nowa Huta, opened on 3 December 1955. At that time in the Polish People's Republic, the official policy of socialist realism in art and social life came to an end and de-Stalinization was taking place, heading for its culmination in the events of Polish October. The Ludowy quickly became known as the city's prime avant-garde stage thanks to collaboration of eminent artists, including the theatre theoretician and painter Józef Szajna, Tadeusz Kantor (both from the Academy of Fine Arts), Lidia Zamkow, Krystyna Zachwatowicz, and others.
The Jewish Community Centre of Krakow (JCC Krakow, Polish: Centrum Społeczności Żydowskiej w Krakowie) is a Jewish cultural and educational centre that opened in 2008 as the result of an initiative by the Prince of Wales. The JCC is located in the Kazimierz district of Krakow on ul. Miodowa. It stands on the site of a garden to the rear of the Tempel Synagogue, abutting the adjacent building.
The main square (Polish: Rynek Główny [ˈrɨnɛk ˈɡwuvnɨ]) of the Old Town of Kraków, Lesser Poland, is the principal urban space located at the center of the city. It dates back to the 13th century, and at 3.79 ha (9.4 acres) is the largest medieval town square in Europe. The Project for Public Spaces (PPS) lists the square as the best public space in Europe due to its lively street life, and it was a major factor in the inclusion of Kraków as one of the top off-the-beaten-path destinations in the world in 2016.The main square is a square space surrounded by historic townhouses (kamienice) and churches. The center of the square is dominated by the Cloth Hall (Sukiennice), rebuilt in 1555 in the Renaissance style, topped by a beautiful attic or Polish parapet decorated with carved masks. On one side of the cloth hall is the Town Hall Tower (Wieża ratuszowa), on the other the 11th century Church of St. Adalbert and 1898 Adam Mickiewicz Monument. Rising above the square are the Gothic towers of St. Mary's Basilica (Kościół Mariacki). Kraków Main Square does not have a town hall, because it has not survived to the present day.
Jama Michalika is a popular Café with history spanning over a hundred years. It is located at Floriańska Street in Kraków, the capital of the Lesser Poland region.
Jama Michalika (lit. Michalik's Den in Polish) is one of the oldest Kraków cafes. It was inaugurated in 1895 by Jan Apolinary Michalik, then under the name Cukiernia Lwowska (Lwów Confiserie). The current name, also translated as the Michalik's Cave, came into existence because initially Michalik could afford only a single room in the back, without any windows. The central location in the Ulica Floriańska 45 as well as the patisserie offering and the invitation to students from the nearby Academy of Fine Arts to eat there free of charge in exchange for their small works of art, the cafe became quickly popular.
In 1905 the cabaret Zielony Balonik (Green Balloon) started to perform here. As a highlight of every cabaret evening was the appearance of a puppet theatre designed and produced for widely popular shows against bigotry and imperial censorship, by Bronisława Janowska among others. Some of the dolls depicted prominent Cracovians. A selection of those historic puppets are displayed at the cafe. The interior is decorated with Art Nouveau furniture, mirrors, stained glass, lamps and cabinets.
The Wawel Royal Castle National Art Collection (Polish: Zamek Królewski na Wawelu – Państwowe Zbiory Sztuki) is the residence museum and collection housed in the historic Wawel Castle of Kraków. The collection was inaugurated officially in 1930, with its current name introduced in 1994.
The Church of Saints Peter and Paul (Polish: Kościół ŚŚ Piotra i Pawła) is a Roman Catholic Polish Baroque church located at 54 Grodzka Street in the Old Town district of Kraków, Poland. It was built between 1597–1619 by Giovanni Maria Bernardoni who perfected the original design of Józef Britius. It is the biggest of the historic Churches of Kraków in terms of seating capacity. Since 1842 it serves the Catholic All Saints parish.
The Corpus Christi Basilica (Polish: Bazylika Bożego Ciała), located in the Kazimierz district of Kraków, Poland is a Gothic church founded by King Casimir III the Great in 1335.
The Church of St. Francis of Assisi with Monastery of the Franciscan Order (Polish: Kościół św. Franciszka z Asyżu) located in the Old Town district of Kraków, Poland, is a Roman Catholic religious complex on the west side of All Saints Square at Franciszkańska 2, across the street from the Bishop's Palace – residence of Pope John Paul II during his stays in the city. The Church dates back to the 13th century. Saint Maximilian Kolbe was a monk there in 1919, and led his first service at this church on Poland's return to sovereignty.
Kraków Główny, in English Kraków Main, is the largest and the most centrally located railway station in Kraków, Poland.
The railway station was situated in a historical building, constructed between 1844 and 1847 by Rosenbaum, which lies parallel to the tracks. The design was chosen to allow for future line expansion. The station was initially a terminus of the Kraków – Upper Silesia Railway (Kolej Krakowsko-Górnośląska, German: Obeschlesische-Krakauer Eisenbahn). Trains entered the trainshed via a brick archway at the northern end of the station which was almost doubled in size in 1871. In 2014, a new building was opened.
Galeria Kazimierz is a large shopping center located in the Grzegórzki borough of Kraków. The name derives from the neighbouring district of Kazimierz. Phase 1 opened in 2004. The mall has around 38,150 m2 of floor space, complete with a wide variety of eateries and large shops such as Zara, Puma, Quiksilver, H&M and Alma Market. In all there is more than 130 retail units present within the mall along with a ten screen cinema. In 2007 construction began on a 6-storey office space which is part of the shopping mall.
The Divine Mercy Shrine (Polish: Sanktuarium Bożego Miłosierdzia) in Kraków, Poland is a Roman Catholic basilica dedicated to the Divine Mercy devotion, and is the resting place of Saint Faustina Kowalska, canonized on April 30, 2000.The new basilica was built between 1999–2002, and is located in the District of Łagiewniki at św. Faustyny street. Three Popes have visited the shrine and millions of pilgrims from around the world continue to visit it every year.
Oskar Schindler's Enamel Factory (Polish: Fabryka Emalia Oskara Schindlera) is a former metal item factory in Kraków. It now hosts two museums: the Museum of Contemporary Art in Kraków, on the former workshops, and a branch of the Historical Museum of the City of Kraków, situated at ul. Lipowa 4 (4 Lipowa Street) in the district of Zabłocie, in the administrative building of the former enamel factory known as Oskar Schindler's Deutsche Emailwarenfabrik (DEF), as seen in the film Schindler's List. Operating here before DEF was the first Malopolska factory of enamelware and metal products limited liability company, instituted in March 1937.
The Kraków Cloth Hall (Polish: Sukiennice, pronounced [sukʲɛˈɲit͡sɛ]), in Lesser Poland, dates to the Renaissance and is one of the city's most recognizable icons. It is the central feature of the main market square in the Kraków Old Town (the historic center of Kraków), which since 1978 has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site).
The underground square central museum of Kraków is situated below the market square of the city and has an area of over 6000 square metres.
Work on the underground square first began at the start of 2009 and cost 38 million zloty. The museum first opened on 24 September 2010, at the time only displaying regular exhibitions. The main feature “In the footsteps of Krakow’s European identity” was launched three days after the museum's opening, on 27 September 2010.
Saint Michael the Archangel and Saint Stanislaus the Bishop and Martyr Basilica, also known as Skałka, which means "a small rock" in Polish, is a small outcrop in Kraków atop of which a Pauline monastery is located, a place where the Bishop of Kraków saint Stanislaus of Szczepanów was slain by order of Polish king Bolesław II the Bold in 1079. This action resulted in the king's exile and the eventual canonization of the slain bishop.
The Kraków Zoo (Polish: Ogród Zoologiczny w Krakowie) is located in Kraków, Poland and was established in 1929. It is home to over 1500 animals and about 260 species. The zoo is a member of the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria and the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums.
The Kraków Barbican (Polish: Barbakan Krakowski) is a barbican – a fortified outpost once connected to the city walls. It is a historic gateway leading into the Old Town of Kraków, Poland. The barbican is one of the few remaining relics of the complex network of fortifications and defensive barriers that once encircled the royal city of Kraków in the south of Poland. It currently serves as a tourist attraction and venue for a variety of exhibitions.Today the Barbican is under the jurisdiction of The Historical Museum of the City of Kraków. Tourists may tour its interior with its displays outlining the historical development of fortifications in Kraków.
The Remah Synagogue, (Polish: Synagoga Remuh), is named after Rabbi Moses Isserles c.1525–1572, known by the Hebrew acronym ReMA (רמ״א, pronounced ReMU) who's famed for writing a collection of commentaries and additions that complement Rabbi Yosef Karo's Shulchan Aruch, with Ashkenazi traditions and customs. Remah Synagogue is the smallest of all historic synagogues of the Kazimierz district of Kraków. It is currently one of two active synagogues in the city.
The PRL Museum (Polish: Muzeum PRL-u) is a museum in Kraków, Poland devoted to documenting the forty-year history of the pro-communist People's Republic of Poland (PRL). It occupies the building of the old Kino Światowid ("Svetovid Cinema"), a formerly state-owned cinema in the Nowa Huta district of Kraków.
The museum was established in 2008 as a division of the Warsaw Museum of Polish History. However, on November 7, 2012, the city council of Kraków decided to establish an independent museum in its place run by the city itself. Waiting for the renovation, museum runs exhibitions in Kino Światowid ("Svetovid Cinema") and, since recently, offers guided tours through nuclear bunkers of Nowa Huta.
The Museum of Contemporary Art in Kraków (MOCAK), (Polish: Muzeum Sztuki Współczesnej w Krakowie), is a contemporary art gallery in Kraków, Poland that opened on 19 May 2011. Situated 3 kilometres from the centre of the city, on a demolished part of the factory of Oskar Schindler, the aim of the gallery is to present and support contemporary art and artists, in particular art from the last two decades.The Museum includes a library, bookshop, café and contemporary art conservation laboratory.
The museum houses works by such artists as AES+F, Krzysztof Wodiczko, Beat Streuli, Ragnar Kjartansson, Robert Kuśmirowski, Tomasz Bajer, Krištof Kintera, Maria Stangret, and Edward Dwurnik. The permanent exhibition is located on the first floor of the building and temporary exhibitions are displayed on the second floor.The building of the museum was designed by Claudio Nardi and it was inspired by neomodern architecture. The exhibition area is divided into several sections and covers the area of 4,000 square metres while the area of the whole museum covers 10,000 square metres. The cost of the museum is estimated at 70 million PLN (ca. €16 million) and its construction was co-financed from the European Union funds.
The Kraków Museum of Insurance (Polish: Muzeum Ubezpieczeń w Krakowie) is a former museum in Kraków, Poland which was dedicated to insurances. It was established in 1987. It was the only such museum in existence devoted to all aspects of the history of insurance in Poland and in formerly Polish lands. The director of the museum was Marianna Halota. The collections of the museum encompassed two centuries of rare artifacts and memorabilia including over 35,000 historic documents and certificates from 28 countries.
Town Hall Tower in Kraków, Poland (Polish: Wieża ratuszowa w Krakowie) is one of the main focal points of the Main Market Square in the Old Town district of Kraków.
The Tower is the only remaining part of the old Kraków Town Hall (Ratusz, see painting, below) demolished in 1820 as part of the city plan to open up the Main Square. Its cellars once housed a city prison with a Medieval torture chamber.
In 1967, after a complex conservation which underlined its gothic ancestry, object was given to the Historical Museum in Cracow for management of it.
Galeria Krakowska is a shopping mall in Kraków, Poland, located adjacent to the city's main railway station.
Kościuszko Mound (Polish: Kopiec Kościuszki) in Kraków, Poland, erected by Cracovians in commemoration of the Polish national leader Tadeusz Kościuszko, is an artificial mound modeled after Kraków's prehistoric mounds of Krak and Wanda. A serpentine path leads to the top, approximately 326 metres (1,070 ft) above sea level, with a panoramic view of the Vistula River and the city.
The Church of St. Andrew in the Old Town district of Kraków, Poland (Polish: Kościół św. Andrzeja) located at Grodzka Street, is a historical Romanesque church built between 1079 and 1098 by a medieval Polish statesman Palatine Sieciech. It is a rare surviving example of the European fortress church used for defensive purposes.
Built in Romanesque style, it is one of the oldest buildings in Kraków and one of the best-preserved Romanesque buildings in Poland. It was the only church in Kraków to withstand the Mongol attack of 1241. Along the lower part of the broader section of its façade are small openings that served as defensive windows at a time when the church was a place of refuge from military assaults.
From 1320 it was used by the Religious Order of Poor Clares. The building has been renovated many times. The present Baroque interiors have decorations by Baltazar Fontana, paintings by Karol Dankwart and gilded altars. The Baroque domes atop the octagonal towers were added in 1639.
The Museum of Municipal Engineering in Kraków or the Muzeum Inżynierii Miejskiej w Krakowie is a municipal museum in Kraków, Poland; located at ul. św. Wawrzyńca 15 street in the centre of historical Kazimierz district. It was established in 1998 by the city, for the purpose of documenting and popularizing the history of the city engineering, transport as well as technological progress. It consists of several buildings housing early trams, buses and motorcycles, radios, industrial machinery and early means of production, as well as many educational aids and displays. The museum is very popular with school children, but also with adults.
The Seweryn Udziela Ethnographic Museum of Kraków (Polish: Muzeum Etnograficzne im. Seweryna Udzieli w Krakowie) is a museum in Kraków, Poland. It was established in 1902.
Theater Scena STU (Krakowski Teatr Scena STU) is located at 16 Krasinskiego Street in Kraków, Poland. Established in 1966 by Krzysztof Jasiński, it started as a member of a group of nonprofessional student theaters. It is considered to be one of the city's most important cultural institutions. The current artistic director is Krzysztof Jasiński.
The Home Army Museum in Kraków (Polish: Muzeum Armii Krajowej w Krakowie) was created in Kraków, Poland in 2000, to commemorate the struggle for independence by the underground Polish Secret State and its military arm Armia Krajowa (The Home Army), the largest resistance movement in occupied Europe during World War II. The museum is named after general Emil August Fieldorf "Nil". It is the only such institution in Poland promoting knowledge about the Polish Underground State and its armed forces during World War II. The idea behind the Home Army Museum is to provide a holistic picture of the Polish underground, its spiritual origins and the shape of patriotic heritage to the present day.
The museum was established in 2000 as a local self-government unit but the formal establishment was preceded by a ten-year effort of collecting the historical items of the Home Army Veterans. So far, the museum brought together more than 8000 exhibits and more than 12 000 archives – mostly gifts of Army Soldiers and their families around the world – historical memorabilia, often with tenor of relics. The library resources reach about 11 500 volumes.
The permanent exhibition presents the history of Polish Underground State and Home Army in their complexity. The main section of the exhibition begins with the so-called September Campaign (Invasion of Poland, 1939). The division of Poland into two occupied zones, German and Soviet, consists of several sections (pe. Society, Terror,
concentration camps, Holocaust and attitude of the Underground State towards persecuted Jews, etc.) and are well documented with photographic displays. Day-by-day life,
both civilian and military, and the policy of both occupants is shown in the rich narrative scenography of the exhibition, based on documents and artefacts such as uniforms, munitions, many documents and decorations.
The main part of the exhibition is situated in the basement. Visitors are confronted with hundreds of photos and memorabilia telling stories of selected Home Army members. One of the most precious exhibits is the diary of a famous major "Hubal" – Henryk Dobrzański, the first guerilla commander of the World War II in Europe. Among other artefacts there is a replica of a fuselage section of Halifax (British heavy bomber) and a reconstructed inner structure of a V-2 rocket. The reconstruction of a detention cell in which after 1944 Polish Urząd Bezpieczeństwa (Department of Security) held members of the Home Army and postwar Freedom and Independence organisation gives the opportunity to experience the communist terror. The museum has a rich weapon collection, including homemade projectiles.
The museum is located at Ulica Wita Stwosza 12, in the Grzegórzki District of Kraków.
Smocza Jama (Polish for "dragon's den") is a limestone cave in the Wawel Hill in Kraków. Owing to its location in the heart of the former Polish capital and its connection to the legendary Wawel Dragon, it is the best known cave in Poland.
Galeria Olympia is an art gallery in Cracow, Poland established in 1999, that shows works by contemporary artists. Its name refers to the name of the founder, Olimpia Maciejewska, and to the title of a 1863 painting by Edouard Manet. The gallery is located in the Podgórze district, at Limanowskiego Street 24/4b.
St. Florian's Gate or Florian Gate (Polish: Brama Floriańska) in Kraków, Poland, is one of the best-known Polish Gothic towers, and a focal point of Kraków's Old Town. It was built about the 14th century as a rectangular Gothic tower of "wild stone", part of the city fortifications against Turkish attack.
The Wielopolski Palace in Kraków, Poland, is the location of the Kraków City Council and the office of the President of Kraków. The palace and the courtyard buildings are located between the All Saints 3–4 Square (Plac Wszystkich Świętych) and the Deputies 8–12 Street (ul. Poselska), which is the official address of the City Hall.
Pomorska (Ulica Pomorska 2) is a building also known as Silesian House (In Polish: Dom Slaski) in Krakow, Poland. The word Pomorska was for the Krakow 1940s generation a synonym for Gestapo headquarters and operations.
The Jewish Culture Festival in Kraków (Polish: Festiwal Kultury Żydowskiej w Krakowie, Yiddish: ייִדישער קולטור־פֿעסטיוואַל אין קראָקע) is an annual cultural event organized since 1988 in the once Jewish district of Kazimierz (part of Kraków) by the Jewish Culture Festival Society headed by Janusz Makuch, a self-described meshugeneh, fascinated with all things Jewish. The main goal of the festival is to educate people about Jewish culture, history and faith (Judaism), which flourished in Poland before the Holocaust, as well as to familiarize them with modern Jewish culture developing mostly in the United States and Israel, and finally, to provide entertainment.
Each festival is held in late June or early July and takes nine days, from Saturday to Sunday. During that time concerts, exhibitions, plays, lectures, workshops, tours, etc. are organized. The two most important concerts are: the inaugural concert on the first Sunday, and the final concert on the last Saturday of the festival. The former usually takes place in one of seven synagogues of Kazimierz and features cantoral music; the latter is always held outdoors, in Ulica Szeroka, the main street of the Jewish part of Kazimierz, and features klezmer music. In between there are many more concerts, usually with some variations of klezmer music.
The workshops provide an occasion to learn about traditional Jewish cuisine, dance, music, calligraphy and other aspects of Jewish culture. More about Jewish culture, as well as about topics related to the Holocaust, is taught at numerous lectures. Exhibitions of Jewish art, particularly paper-cut, are also organized. The program of the festival also includes tours of the synagogues and cemeteries of Kazimierz as well as the former Nazi-era Kraków Ghetto in the nearby district of Podgórze. During the festival Gentiles are also invited to watch or participate in Jewish prayers at the synagogue.
Jewish Culture Festival brings together artists of Jewish culture from all over the world - music bands, soloists, choirs, jazz musicians and dance teachers. The festival promotes a whole variety of different styles of Jewish music: synagogue song, hasidic, classical, Jewish folk and – very popular in Krakow nowadays – klezmer. For the Poles this event is a way of promotion of Jewish culture and paying a homage to the community that used to live in Poland, although many Jews were reportedly offended by the commercialization of Polish Jewish culture. "Others argue that there is something deeper taking place in Poland as the country heals from the double wounds of Nazi and Communist domination."It is one of Poland's major annual cultural events and one of the biggest festivals of Jewish culture in the world. Artists and entertainers usually associated with the festival include: Benzion Miller, Yaakov Stark, David Krakauer, Frank London, Leopold Kozłowski, Michael Alpert, Theodore Bikel, Paul Brody and many others. Jewish dances are led by Steven Weintraub.
Museum of the Armed Act (Polish: Muzeum Czynu Zbrojnego) is a museum in Kraków, Poland. It was established in 1963 and by 1970 had 3000 artifacts.
Aquarium and Natural History Museum in Kraków (formerly the Museum of Natural Science Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals PAS) is a public aquarium and museum at St. Sebastian 9th in Kraków, Poland. There is a crafted, perfectly preserved, prehistoric woolly rhino, the only completely preserved specimen of this animal that went extinct more than 12 thousand years ago.
Tadeusz Kościuszko Monument in Kraków (Polish: Pomnik Tadeusza Kościuszki w Krakowie), is one of the best known bronze monuments in Poland. It is the work of artists: Leonard Marconi, professor of Lviv University born in Warsaw, and his son in law, sculptor Antoni Popiel. The equestrian bronze statue of Kościuszko—Polish and American hero of independence—is located along the west side entrance to the Wawel Castle in the Old Town.
Regionalne Muzeum Młodej Polski "Rydlówka" is a museum in Kraków, Poland. It was constructed in 1894.
Zwierzyniecki Salon Artystyczny is a museum in Kraków, Poland. It was established in 1993.
The Church of St. Casimir the Prince (Polish: Kościół św. Kazimierza Królewicza) in Kraków, Poland – with the adjacent Franciscan monastery and the catacombs – is located at ul. Reformacka 4 street in the Old Town district (Stare Miasto). Members of the Catholic Order of Franciscans known as "Little Brothers" arrived in Kraków in 1622 and settled at the outskirts of the town in Garbary (1625).
Grabie [ˈɡrabjɛ] is a village in Poland located in Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in Wieliczka County, in Gmina Wieliczka. It lies on right (south) bank of the Vistula river, between Kraków and Niepołomice. It is approximately 9 kilometres (6 mi) north-east of Wieliczka and 14 km (9 mi) east of Kraków.
Muzeum Geologiczne Instytutu Nauk Geologicznych PAN w Krakowie is a museum in Kraków, Poland. The collection dates back to 1865.
High Synagogue is an inactive Orthodox Jewish synagogue in Kazimierz District of Kraków, Poland. It was called the High (or Tall) Synagogue for many centuries for it was the tallest synagogue in the city, or because the prayer hall was upstairs.
In the second half of the 16th century, a wealthy merchant known only as Israel, proposed to King Sigismund II August his request for permission to set up a synagogue. He obtained the agreement and in 1563 he started construction. Other sources state the construction date to the years 1556-1563. According to one hypothesis, the synagogue was built by emigrants - Sephardic Jews, perhaps from Greece or Italy. It appears to be in a Renaissance manner with certain modifications common north of the alps (most notably the tracery, which resembles that of St-Pierre in Caen). It was the third synagogue to be erected in Kazimierz. The prayer rooms were located on the second floor above the ground floor shops. The interior walls of the sanctuary featured paintings of scenes in Jerusalem, including the "Tomb of the Israelite Kings," "Western Wall," and a handsome pair of lions in the women's gallery.
Muzeum Czynu Niepodległościowego is a museum in Kraków, Poland. It was established in 1922.
Kraków Mydlniki is a railway station in the Bronowice district of Kraków, Poland, located in the neighbourhood of Mydlniki, northwest of the city centre. The station, with its historic building, lies within the Tenczynek Landscape Park (Tenczyński Park Krajobrazowy) protected area with numerous summer visitors, because the Park is also the location of a medieval Tenczyn Castle built as a seat of the powerful Tęczyński family. It fell into ruin during the Deluge in mid-17th century, after being pillaged and burned by Swedish-Brandenburgian forces looking for the Polish Crown Jewels and the rumored treasures of the Tęczyński family. Within the Landscape Park are five nature reserves.
The station serves the PKP rail line 95 between Katowice to the west (1), and Kraków Balice to the east (2); more specifically:
PKP rail line 133 Dąbrowa Górnicza Ząbkowice - Kraków Główny, 70.7 kilometres (43.9 mi)
PKP rail line 118 Kraków Mydlniki - Kraków Balice, 5.0 kilometres (3.1 mi).
Łaźnia Nowa Theatre is the newest dramatic theatre in Kraków, Poland, founded in 2005. It is located in the district of Nowa Huta which was built from the ground up during the 1950s' Communist policy of Socialist realism. Appropriately, the theatre is residing in the post-industrial halls of a former technical school.Łaźnia Nowa Theatre was preceded by Łaźnia Theatre, located in Kazimierz (former Jewish district of Kraków). The theatre was originally located in a cellar which used to serve as a Jewish mikvah, hence the name łaźnia (public bath in Polish). After the theatre was moved to the district of Nowa Huta (literally New Steelworks), the word Nowa (New) was added to its name.
The John Paul II Cathedral Museum is a museum in Kraków, Poland. It is situated on Wawel Hill, between the Vasa Gate and the former seat of the Castle Seminary, in the Cathedral House, which is composed of two 14th century buildings.