Kraków Old Town
old town of Kraków, Poland
Wikimedia Commons category: Kraków Old Town
English Kraków Old Town
Kraków Old Town is the historic central district of Kraków, Poland. It is one of the most famous old districts in Poland today and was the center of Poland's political life from 1038 until King Sigismund III Vasa relocated his court to Warsaw in 1596.
The entire medieval old town is among the first sites chosen for the UNESCO's original World Heritage List, inscribed as Cracow's Historic Centre. The old town is also one of Poland's official national Historic Monuments (Pomnik historii) chosen in the first round, as designated September 16, 1994, and tracked by the National Heritage Board of Poland.
The Old Town is known in Polish as Stare Miasto. It is part of the city's first administrative district which is also named "Stare Miasto," although it covers a wider area than the Old Town itself.
Medieval Kraków was surrounded by a 1.9 mile (3 km) defensive wall complete with 46 towers and seven main entrances leading through them. The fortifications around the Old Town were erected over the course of two centuries. The current architectural plan of Stare Miasto – the 13th-century merchants' town – was drawn up in 1257 after the destruction of the city during the Tatar invasions of 1241 followed by raids of 1259 and repelled in 1287. The district features the centrally located Rynek Główny, or Main Square, the largest medieval town square of any European city. There is a number of historic landmarks in its vicinity, such as St. Mary's Basilica (Kościół Mariacki), Church of St. Wojciech (St. Adalbert's), Church of St. Barbara, as well as other national treasures. At the center of the plaza, surrounded by kamienice (row houses) and noble residences, stands the Renaissance cloth hall Sukiennice (currently housing gift shops, restaurants and merchant stalls) with the National Gallery of Art upstairs. It is flanked by the Town Hall Tower (Wieża ratuszowa).
The whole district is bisected by the Royal Road, the coronation route traversed by the Kings of Poland. The Route begins at St. Florian's Church outside the northern flank of the old city walls in the medieval suburb of Kleparz; passes the Barbican of Kraków (Barbakan) built in 1499, and enters Stare Miasto through the Florian Gate. It leads down Floriańska Street through the Main Square, and up Grodzka to Wawel, the former seat of Polish royalty overlooking the Vistula river.
In the 19th century most of the Old Town fortifications were demolished. The moat encircling the walls was filled in and turned into a green belt known as Planty Park.
Source: Kraków Old Town
German Historisches Zentrum von Krakau
Seit 1978 ist das Historische Zentrum von Krakau (polnisch Historyczne centrum Krakowa), der Kern der früheren polnischen Hauptstadt Krakau in Kleinpolen, in die Liste des UNESCO-Welterbes aufgenommen worden.
Dieses Zentrum liegt an der Weichsel (Wisła) unterhalb des Burgbergs Wawel mit dem Königlichen Schloss und der Wawel-Kathedrale. Neben diesem Wawelhügel-Komplex besteht das Ensemble aus der der mittelalterlichen Kernstadt Krakaus und dem Stadtteil Kazimierz mit dem Vorort Stradom. Die Kaufmannsstadt des 13. Jahrhunderts besitzt Europas größten Marktplatz (Rynek Główny) und zahllose historische Häuser, Paläste und Kirchen mit prächtiger Innenausstattung. Ein weiteres Zeugnis für die faszinierende Vergangenheit sind die Stadtmauern aus dem 14. Jahrhundert, der mittelalterliche Stadtteil Kazimierz mit seinen alten Synagogen im Süden, die Jagiellonen-Universität und die gotische Kathedrale, in der die polnischen Könige begraben liegen.
Source: Historisches Zentrum von Krakau
Polish Stare Miasto w Krakowie
Stare Miasto – najstarszy obszar Krakowa, otoczony Plantami. Jego centrum stanowi Rynek Główny. Do roku 1954 Stare Miasto w obrębie Plant (bez wawelskiego wzgórza) stanowiło odrębną dzielnicę katastralną. Była to dzielnica I Śródmieście.
W 1978 Stare Miasto wraz z Wawelem, Kazimierzem i Stradomiem zostało wpisane na listę światowego dziedzictwa UNESCO, w 1994 razem z Wawelem, Stradomiem, Kazimierzem, Podgórzem, Nowym Światem i Piaskiem zostało uznane za Pomnik historii.
Głównymi zabytkami krakowskiego Starego Miasta są znajdujące się na Rynku Głównym: kościół Mariacki, Sukiennice i wieża ratuszowa, oraz pozostałości murów obronnych – Brama Floriańska i Barbakan.
Source: Stare Miasto w Krakowie
Russian Старый город (Краков)
Памятник истории Указом президента Леха Валенсы от 8 сентября 1994 года.
Старый город в Кракове (польск. Stare Miasto w Krakowie) — центральная историческая часть Кракова. Старый Краков был столицей Польского королевства с 1038 по 1596 годы. В 1978 году исторический центр Кракова, включая Старый город, одним из первых был внесён в список объектов Всемирного наследия, а в 1994 году в соответствии с указом президента Леха Валенсы объявлен Памятником истории Польши.
Source: Старый город (Краков)
Ukrainian Старе Місто (Краків)
Старе́ Мі́сто (пол. Stare Miasto) — найстаріша частина Кракова, в оточенні Плант. Його центром є Площа Ринок, або Головний Ринок. Входить до складу району Старе Місто.
У 1978 році Старе Місто Кракова разом із замком Вавель, єврейським Казімежом і Страдомом були внесені до списку світової спадщини ЮНЕСКО, а у 1994 році разом з Вавелем, Казімежем, Страдомом, Новим Світом і П'ясеком були оголошені історичною пам'яткою Польщі.
Основні пам'ятки Старого Міста Кракова розташовані на головній площі: Маріацький костел, Сукенніци і вежа ратуші, а також рештки укріплень — ворота Флоріана і Барбакан.
Source: Старе Місто (Краків)
Spanish Centro histórico de Cracovia
El centro histórico de Cracovia, declarado Patrimonio de la Humanidad en 1978, está dividido en tres zonas diferenciadas: la colina de Wawel, la ciudad medieval de Cracovia y el núcleo medieval de Kazimierz.
En el centro está la Rynek Główny, o plaza mayor o plaza del mercado (ya que posee un mercado de planta rectangular en medio), de gran tamaño para su fecha de construcción y numerosas iglesias como la basílica de María Santísima (Kościoł Mariacki) (con dos torres desiguales), la iglesia de san Wojciech y otros tesoros nacionales como el complejo Sukiennice (que alberga mercado de telas y tallas, otras diversas tiendas y restaurantes, pero también el Museo nacional de arte de Cracovia). Allí se encuentra también la barbacana -una torre de defensa que formaba parte de una red de fortificaciones que circundaban la ciudad- y el Castillo de Wawel. El ayuntamiento es de planta circular.
Source: Centro histórico de Cracovia
French Centre historique de Cracovie
Le centre historique de Cracovie est la partie la plus ancienne de la ville de Cracovie. Ce centre est décrit par l'historien, géographe et explorateur arabe Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Hussein al-Masudi vers l'an 943 au Caire dans son livre “Murūj adh-dhahab wa-ma'ādin al-jawhar” ou “Prairies d'or et mines de pierres précieuses”. N'ayant subi que peu de destructions depuis sa dévastation par les Tatars au Moyen Âge, il est riche de monuments de toutes les époques, surtout de la Renaissance, mais aussi de style baroque et néogothique (Collegium Novum). L'intérieur des bâtiments ayant aussi été préservé, les palais, églises et anciennes résidences aristocratiques de Cracovie brillent par la richesse des détails architecturaux, les vitraux, peintures et sculptures, ornementations…
Depuis 2002, les espaces libres de la ville sont investis par des constructions s'intégrant au paysage architectural de la ville et les anciennes demeures sont rénovées en conservant cette harmonie.
Parmi les centaines de monuments historiques, certains sont particulièrement intéressants comme :
le Château Royal (sur la liste du patrimoine mondial de l'Unesco et dessiné par des architectes italiens de la Renaissance) et la basilique-cathédrale Saints-Stanislas-et-Venceslas de Cracovie sur la colline du Wawel où le roi Jean III Sobieski est enterré.
la vieille ville médiévale (Stare Miasto en polonais) avec sa grand place (Rynek Główny, la plus grande place médiévale d'Europe, bordée de demeures colorées des XIVe et XVe siècles) au milieu de laquelle se trouve Sukiennice (Halle aux draps, dont le rez-de-chaussée est occupé actuellement par des boutiques d'artisanat et de souvenirs) ; côté est de la place trônent la Basilique Sainte Marie et la statue d'Adam Mickiewicz. Depuis 2010, s'étend sous la dalle de la place un musée interactif qui plonge le visiteur dans le Cracovie du Moyen Âge.
des douzaines de vieilles églises et de musée.
les bâtiments de l'Université Jagellonne datant du XIVe siècle.
Kazimierz, le centre historique de la vie religieuse et sociale des Juifs de la ville.
Source: Centre historique de Cracovie
Italian Centro storico di Cracovia
Il centro storico è il distretto centrale di Cracovia. È il migliore esempio di città vecchia della Polonia, di cui Cracovia era la capitale storica.
Le attrazioni dello Stare Miasto - la Città Vecchia - comprendono la piazza del mercato, il Rynek Główny (la più grande piazza medievale dell'Europa) e numerose chiese tra cui la basilica di Santa Maria, la chiesa di Sant'Adalberto (in polacco il nome del santo è Wojciech), la chiesa dei Santi Pietro e Paolo ed altri tesori, come il mercato dei tessuti (che attualmente ospita negozi) ed il Museo Nazionale di Cracovia, il municipio a torre, il barbacane (una torre difensiva che un tempo faceva parte delle mura, nei pressi della porta di San Floriano) ed il castello del Wawel, ex sede del regno polacco che si affaccia sulla Vistola. Una delle sedi del museo Nazionale, il museo Czartoryski, ospitava la celeberrima Dama con l'ermellino di Leonardo da Vinci, poi visitabile nel castello del Wawel e dall'estate del 2017 il quadro è visibile al Museo Nazionale di Cracovia.
Source: Centro storico di Cracovia
pt Centro Histórico de Cracóvia
O centro histórico de Cracóvia, declarado Patrimônio da Humanidade em 1978, está dividido em três zonas diferenciadas: a colina de Wawel, a cidade medieval de Cracóvia e o núcleo medieval de Kazimierz.
No centro está a Rynek Główny, ou praça maior ou praça do mercado (já que possui um mercado de forma retangular no meio), de grande tamanho para seu fechamento de construção e numerosas igrejas como a basílica de Maria Santíssima (Kościół Mariacki) (com duas torres desiguais), a Igreja de São Wojciech e outros tesouros nacionais como Sukiennice (que é um mercado de telas e talhas que abriga também diversas lojas, restaurantes, mas também o Museu Nacional de Arte de Cracóvia. Ali se encontra também a Barbacã (uma torre de defesa que formava parte de uma rede de fortificações que circundavam a cidade) e o Castelo de Wawel. O ajuntamento é de forma circular.
Source: Centro Histórico de Cracóvia
克拉科夫老城（波蘭語：Stare Miasto w Krakowie；又譯為克拉科夫舊城）是波兰城市克拉科夫的历史城區，位於克拉科夫的市中心地帶。这是波兰最经典的老城，因为许多世纪以来，克拉科夫都是波兰的首都，直到1596年，時任國王齐格蒙特三世才将他的宫廷迁往华沙。1978年，克拉科夫老城以「克拉科夫历史中心」名稱由联合国教科文组织列为世界遗产。
Places located in Kraków Old Town
Kraków (, also US: , UK: , Polish: [ˈkrakuf] (listen)), written in English as Krakow and traditionally known as Cracow, is the second-largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in Lesser Poland Province, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków was the official capital of Poland until 1596 and has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, economic, cultural and artistic life. Cited as one of Europe's most beautiful cities, its Old Town was declared the first UNESCO World Heritage Site in the world.
The city has grown from a Stone Age settlement to Poland's second-most-important city. It began as a hamlet on Wawel Hill and was reported as a busy trading centre of Central Europe in 965. With the establishment of new universities and cultural venues at the emergence of the Second Polish Republic in 1918 and throughout the 20th century, Kraków reaffirmed its role as a major national academic and artistic centre. The city has a population of about 780,000, with approximately 8 million additional people living within a 100 km (62 mi) radius of its main square.After the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany at the start of World War II, the newly defined Distrikt Krakau (Kraków District) became the capital of Germany's General Government. The Jewish population of the city was forced into a walled zone known as the Kraków Ghetto, from which they were sent to German extermination camps such as the nearby Auschwitz, and the Nazi concentration camps like Płaszów. However, the city was spared from destruction and major bombing.
In 1978, Karol Wojtyła, archbishop of Kraków, was elevated to the papacy as Pope John Paul II—the first non-Italian pope in 455 years. Also that year, UNESCO approved Kraków's entire Old Town and historic centre as its first World Heritage List alongside Quito. Kraków is classified as a global city with the ranking of "high sufficiency" by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Its extensive cultural heritage across the epochs of Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque architecture includes the Wawel Cathedral and the Royal Castle on the banks of the Vistula, the St. Mary's Basilica, Saints Peter and Paul Church and the largest medieval market square in Europe, the Rynek Główny. Kraków is home to Jagiellonian University, one of the oldest universities in the world and traditionally Poland's most reputable institution of higher learning.
In 2000, Kraków was named European Capital of Culture. In 2013, Kraków was officially approved as a UNESCO City of Literature. The city hosted the World Youth Day in July 2016.
The Jagiellonian University (Polish: Uniwersytet Jagielloński; Latin: Universitas Iagellonica Cracoviensis, also known as the University of Kraków) is a research university in Kraków, Poland.
Founded in 1364 by Casimir III the Great, the Jagiellonian University is the oldest university in Poland, the second oldest university in Central Europe, and one of the oldest surviving universities in the world. Notable alumni include astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus, poet Jan Kochanowski, Polish King John III Sobieski, constitutional reformer Hugo Kołłątaj, chemist Karol Olszewski, anthropologist Bronisław Malinowski, writer Stanisław Lem, and President of Poland Andrzej Duda. Students at the University who did not earn diplomas included Nobel laureates Ivo Andrić and Wisława Szymborska. Pope John Paul II enrolled in the Jagellonian University of Krakow in 1938 to study Polish Studies at the JU Faculty of Philosophy, but shortly after enrollment, his studies were interrupted by Sonderaktion Krakau. In 1953, Father Wojtyła presented a dissertation at the Jagellonian University of Krakow on the possibility of grounding a Christian ethic on the ethical system developed by Max Scheler.The campus of the Jagiellonian University is centrally located within the city of Kraków. The university consists of fifteen faculties, including the humanities, law, the natural and social sciences, and medicine. The university employs roughly 4,000 academics, and has more than 40,000 students who study in some 80 disciplines. More than half of the student body are women. The language of instruction is usually Polish, although several degrees are offered in either German or English. The university library is one of Poland's largest, and houses several medieval manuscripts, including Copernicus' De Revolutionibus.
Due to its history, the Jagiellonian University is traditionally considered Poland's most reputable institution of higher learning, this standing equally being reflected in international rankings. The Jagiellonian University is a member of the Coimbra Group and Europaeum.
In 2019, the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) placed the university within the 301–400 band globally.
The Collegium Novum (Latin: "New College") is the Neo-Gothic main building of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland, built in 1873-1887. Based on a design by architect Feliks Księżarski to match the oldest building of the University, it was opened for the 500th anniversary of the University's foundation. The Collegium Novum replaced a former academic boarding school called Jeruzalem, consumed by fire in the mid-19th century.
The building contains lecture rooms including an impressive assembly hall (called Aula), Rector's, Deans', and other university authorities' offices as well as those of a number of prominent professors. It is the Jagiellonian University's administrative centre.
Collegium Novum was opened on June 14, 1887, commencing several years of debate and construction. The decision regarding the allocation of subsidies was made in the Austro-Hungarian capital of Vienna, with the University's vital interests defended by Julian Dunajewski, the then Austrian Finance Minister. The work might not have begun at all had it not been for his commitment, as well as that of his brother Cardinal Albin Dunajewski.
Already at the time of its grand opening, the assembly hall (Aula) of the new building was too small to accommodate all guests on all occasions, even though the number of students did not exceed 1200 with approximately one hundred professors. A debate arose whether it was necessary to invite professors' wives to grand ceremonies. Most academics, in keeping with the prevailing trend of the time, were against the inviting of women guests. In the University's archives there is a formal invitation reading: “Zoll requires no ticket and wishes the ceremony to be exclusively male.” In another statement, Edward Janczewski “expresses his opposition to the idea of admitting ladies to the ceremonies.” Until the end of First World War, a portrait of emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, painted by Kazimierz Pochwalski, hung in the Aula of the Collegium. On October 31, 1918 a group of University students tore it to pieces, manifesting their determination for the recreation of an independent Republic of Poland. However, a number of other paintings did survive, including portraits of the University's founding fathers Casimir the Great and Władysław Jagiełło dating back to the early 1860s, a picture of Queen Jadwiga painted in 1900 to celebrate her Jubilee, as well as the works of Jan Matejko, including his painting entitled Copernicus: Conversation with God. The chairs in the assembly hall were designed by Tadeusz Stryjeński.
On the upper floor of the College there is a lecture hall named after Józef Szujski – now used by historians – with the commemorative plaque in remembrance of the events surrounding Nazi German action called Sonderaktion Krakau where 183 professors were arrested and later sent to camps in Sachsenhausen and Dachau. The plaque reads: "For the freedom of spirit and service to science and nation of Jagiellonian University professors deceitfully and forcefully taken away from this hall and imprisoned by the Nazi occupant on November 6, 1939."
The restoration of the Neo-Gothic architectural structure took place at the end of the 20th century. It was faced with a number of challenges, notably the task of reviving the original form of the building while simultaneously improving its functionality as an educational facility. The restoration was carried out on its façade in 1994 along with the modernization of the assembly hall, which was completed in 1999. The collaboration of specialists from various disciplines allowed for both restoration and functional needs of the Collegium to be met successfully.
The Royal Archcathedral Basilica of Saints Stanislaus and Wenceslaus on the Wawel Hill (Polish: Królewska Bazylika Archikatedralna śś. Stanisława i Wacława na Wawelu), also known as the Wawel Cathedral (Polish: Katedra Wawelska), is a Roman Catholic church and Cathedral of the Archdiocese of Kraków, located on Wawel Hill in Kraków, Poland. More than 900 years old, it is the Polish national sanctuary and traditionally has served as coronation site of the Polish monarchs.
Karol Wojtyla, who in 1978 became Pope John Paul II, the day after his ordination to the priesthood offered his first Mass as a priest in the Crypt of the Cathedral on 2 November 1946, and was ordained Kraków's auxiliary bishop in the Cathedral on 28 September 1958.The current, Gothic cathedral, is the third edifice on this site: the first was constructed and destroyed in the 11th century; the second one, constructed in the 12th century, was destroyed by a fire in 1305. The construction of the current one began in the 14th century on the orders of bishop Nanker.
The Wawel Castle (Polish pronunciation: [ˈvavɛl]; Zamek Królewski na Wawelu) is a castle residency located in central Kraków, Poland. Built at the behest of King Casimir III the Great, it consists of a number of structures situated around the Italian-styled main courtyard. The castle, being one of the largest in Poland, represents nearly all European architectural styles of medieval, renaissance and baroque periods. The Wawel Royal Castle and the Wawel Hill constitute the most historically and culturally significant site in the country. In 1978 it was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site as part of the Historic Centre of Kraków.
For centuries the residence of the kings of Poland and the symbol of Polish statehood, the Castle is now one of the country's premier art museums. Established in 1930, the museum encompasses ten curatorial departments responsible for collections of paintings, including an important collection of Italian Renaissance paintings, prints, sculpture, textiles, among them the Sigismund II Augustus tapestry collection, goldsmith's work, arms and armor, ceramics, Meissen porcelain, and period furniture. The museum's holdings in oriental art include the largest collection of Ottoman tents in Europe. With seven specialized conservation studios, the museum is also an important center for the conservation of works of art.
The Czartoryski Museum and Library (Polish: Muzeum Książąt Czartoryskich w Krakowie [muˈzɛum ˈkɕɔ̃ʐɔnt tʂartɔˈrɨskʲix f kraˈkɔvjɛ]) is a museum located in Kraków, Poland, founded in Puławy in 1796 by Princess Izabela Czartoryska. The Puławy collections were partly destroyed after the November uprising of 1830–1831 and the subsequent confiscation of the Czartoryskis' property by the Russians. Most of the museum holdings, however, were saved and moved to Paris, where they reposed at the Hôtel Lambert. In 1870 Prince Władysław Czartoryski decided to move the collections to Kraków, where they arrived in 1876. The city had been granted a degree of autonomy following the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867.
The most renowned painting on display at the museum was the Lady with an Ermine by Leonardo da Vinci, one of his best-known works. Other highlights of the collection are two works by Rembrandt, several antiquities, including sculptures, Renaissance tapestries as well as decorative arts, and paintings by Hans Holbein, Jacob Jordaens, Luca Giordano, Pieter Brueghel the Younger, Dieric Bouts, Joos van Cleve, Lorenzo Lotto, Lucas Cranach the Younger, Lorenzo Monaco, Andrea Mantegna, Alessandro Magnasco and the Master of the Female Half-Lengths. The museum has been closed since 2010, but it may be reopened in 2019. Some parts of the collection are displayed in other venues.
Saint Mary’s Basilica (Polish: Kościół Mariacki) is a Brick Gothic church adjacent to the Main Market Square in Kraków, Poland. Built in the 14th century, its foundations date back to the early 13th century and serve as one of the best examples of Polish Gothic architecture. Standing 80 m (262 ft) tall, it is particularly famous for its wooden altarpiece carved by Veit Stoss (Wit Stwosz). In 1978 it became a UNESCO World Heritage Site alongside the Historic Centre of Kraków.
On every hour, a trumpet signal—called the Hejnał mariacki—is played from the top of the taller of Saint Mary's two towers. The plaintive tune breaks off in mid-stream, to commemorate a famous 13th century trumpeter who was shot in the throat while sounding the alarm before a Mongol attack on the city. The noon-time hejnał is heard across Poland and abroad broadcast live by the Polish national Radio 1 Station.Saint Mary's Basilica also served as an architectural model for many of the churches that were built by the Polish diaspora abroad, particularly those like Saint Michael's and Saint John Cantius in Chicago, designed in the Polish Cathedral style.
The church is familiar to many English-speaking readers from the 1929 book The Trumpeter of Krakow by Eric P. Kelly.
Planty is one of the largest city parks in Kraków, Poland. It encircles the Stare Miasto (Old Town), where the Medieval city walls used to stand until the early 19th century. The historic Old Town is not to be confused with the Administrative District No. 1 Stare Miasto extending further east.
The park has an area of 21,000 square meters (5.2 acres) and a length of 4 kilometers (2.5 mi). It consists of a chain of thirty smaller gardens designed in varied styles and adorned with numerous monuments and fountains. There are over twenty statues of noble historical figures in the park – monuments of Nicolaus Copernicus, Jan Matejko, queen Jadwiga and king Wladyslaw II Jagiello, just to name a few. There are also several plaques in the park commemorating, among others, Jan Dlugosz and Stanislaw Wyspianski.The park forms a scenic walkway popular with Cracovians. In summer, sprinkled with ponds and refreshment stalls, it is a cool and shady retreat from the nearby bustling streets.Most historic sites of the old Kraków are located inside the Planty-park-belt along the Royal Road (Polish: Droga Królewska) crossing the park from the medieval suburb of Kleparz – through Florian Gate – at the northern flank of the old city walls. The historic Wawel Castle at the Wawel Hill, adjacent to Vistula River meander, form the southernmost border of Planty.
Muzeum Farmacji Collegium Medicum Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego (Pharmacy Museum, Jagiellonian University Medical College) is a museum on Floriańska Street, Kraków, Poland, specializing in the history of pharmacy and pharmaceutical technology. It was established in 1946.
The founder and first director of the museum was Dr. Stanislaw Pron, legal counsel and administrative director of the Regional Chamber of Pharmacists in Kraków. Until the late 1980s, the museum was housed in the building at 3 ul. Basztowa. It was then transferred to the newly renovated building at ul. St. Florian's, where it remains today.
The museum occupies all five floors of the building, including the basement and the attic, in a manner appropriate to the historical use of such premises in as an apothecary. On the first floor is a room dedicated to Ignacy Łukasiewicz, a pharmacist, pioneer in the field of crude oil, and the inventor of the modern kerosene lamp. The room on the second floor of the exhibition is devoted to Tadeusz Pankiewicz, a Roman Catholic who ran the "Under the Eagle" pharmacy in the Kraków Ghetto during the Nazi occupation of Poland. Among the various exhibits of pharmaceutical technology are weights of less than one gram as patented by Marian Zahradnik, the shape of which indicates their importance. Such weights were adopted in the countries of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and later across Europe, and are still used with minor modifications. Another interesting invention is an electrical device to sterilize prescriptions. It was to protect the pharmacist from infection by germs transferred on the prescription.
The Collegium Maius (Latin for "Great College") located in Kraków Old Town, Poland, is the Jagiellonian University's oldest building, dating back to the 14th century. It stands at the corner of ulica Jagiellońska (Jagiellon Street) and ulica Świętej Anny (St. Anne Street) near the Main Square of the historic city centre. Collegium Maius is the location of the Jagiellonian University Museum (Polish: Muzeum Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego), a registered museum established on the initiative of Prof. Karol Estreicher after meticulous restorations which lasted from 1949 until 1964 bringing the edifice back to its original look from before 1840.
Grodzka Street (Polish: Ulica Grodzka, lit. Gord Street) - one of the oldest streets in Kraków, Poland. The street fell along line a former north-to-south trade route. The street is part of the Royal Route, used by Polish kings to reach the Wawel Castle. The earliest documents of its name derive from the thirteenth-century.
Floriańska Street or St. Florian's Street (Polish: ulica Floriańska w Krakowie, Latin: platea Sancti Floriani) is one of the main streets in Kraków Old Town and one of the most famous promenades in the city. The street forms part of the regular grid plan of Stare Miasto (the Old Town), the merchants' town that extends the medieval heart of the city, which was drawn up in 1257 after the destruction of the city during the Tatar invasions of 1241.
The main square (Polish: Rynek Główny [ˈrɨnɛk ˈɡwuvnɨ]) of the Old Town of Kraków, Lesser Poland, is the principal urban space located at the center of the city. It dates back to the 13th century, and at 3.79 ha (9.4 acres) is the largest medieval town square in Europe. The Project for Public Spaces (PPS) lists the square as the best public space in Europe due to its lively street life, and it was a major factor in the inclusion of Kraków as one of the top off-the-beaten-path destinations in the world in 2016.The main square is a square space surrounded by historic townhouses (kamienice) and churches. The center of the square is dominated by the Cloth Hall (Sukiennice), rebuilt in 1555 in the Renaissance style, topped by a beautiful attic or Polish parapet decorated with carved masks. On one side of the cloth hall is the Town Hall Tower (Wieża ratuszowa), on the other the 11th century Church of St. Adalbert and 1898 Adam Mickiewicz Monument. Rising above the square are the Gothic towers of St. Mary's Basilica (Kościół Mariacki). Kraków Main Square does not have a town hall, because it has not survived to the present day.
Jama Michalika is a popular Café with history spanning over a hundred years. It is located at Floriańska Street in Kraków, the capital of the Lesser Poland region.
Jama Michalika (lit. Michalik's Den in Polish) is one of the oldest Kraków cafes. It was inaugurated in 1895 by Jan Apolinary Michalik, then under the name Cukiernia Lwowska (Lwów Confiserie). The current name, also translated as the Michalik's Cave, came into existence because initially Michalik could afford only a single room in the back, without any windows. The central location in the Ulica Floriańska 45 as well as the patisserie offering and the invitation to students from the nearby Academy of Fine Arts to eat there free of charge in exchange for their small works of art, the cafe became quickly popular.
In 1905 the cabaret Zielony Balonik (Green Balloon) started to perform here. As a highlight of every cabaret evening was the appearance of a puppet theatre designed and produced for widely popular shows against bigotry and imperial censorship, by Bronisława Janowska among others. Some of the dolls depicted prominent Cracovians. A selection of those historic puppets are displayed at the cafe. The interior is decorated with Art Nouveau furniture, mirrors, stained glass, lamps and cabinets.
The Wawel Royal Castle National Art Collection (Polish: Zamek Królewski na Wawelu – Państwowe Zbiory Sztuki) is the residence museum and collection housed in the historic Wawel Castle of Kraków. The collection was inaugurated officially in 1930, with its current name introduced in 1994.
The Church of Saints Peter and Paul (Polish: Kościół ŚŚ Piotra i Pawła) is a Roman Catholic Polish Baroque church located at 54 Grodzka Street in the Old Town district of Kraków, Poland. It was built between 1597–1619 by Giovanni Maria Bernardoni who perfected the original design of Józef Britius. It is the biggest of the historic Churches of Kraków in terms of seating capacity. Since 1842 it serves the Catholic All Saints parish.
The Church of St. Francis of Assisi with Monastery of the Franciscan Order (Polish: Kościół św. Franciszka z Asyżu) located in the Old Town district of Kraków, Poland, is a Roman Catholic religious complex on the west side of All Saints Square at Franciszkańska 2, across the street from the Bishop's Palace – residence of Pope John Paul II during his stays in the city. The Church dates back to the 13th century. Saint Maximilian Kolbe was a monk there in 1919, and led his first service at this church on Poland's return to sovereignty.
The Gallery of 19th-Century Polish Art at Sukiennice (Polish: Galeria Sztuki Polskiej XIX wieku w Sukiennicach), is a division of the National Museum, Kraków, Poland. The Gallery is housed on the upper floor of the Renaissance Sukiennice Cloth Hall in the center of the Main Market Square in Old Town Kraków.The Gallery holds the largest permanent exhibit of the 19th-century Polish painting and sculpture, in four grand rooms. The majority of today's collection at Sukiennice comprises gifts from collectors, artists and their families.
The Church of St. Adalbert or the Church of St. Wojciech (Polish: Kościół św. Wojciecha), located on the intersection of the Main Market Square and Grodzka Street in Old Town, Kraków, is one of the oldest stone churches in Poland. Its almost 1000-year-old history goes back to the beginning of the Polish Romanesque architecture of the early Middle Ages. Throughout the early history of Kraków the Church of St. Wojciech was a place of worship first visited by merchants travelling from across Europe. It was a place where citizens and nobility would meet.
Juliusz Słowacki Theatre (Polish: Teatr im. Juliusza Słowackiego w Krakowie) is a 19th-century Eclectic theatre-opera house in the heart of Kraków, Poland, and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Erected in 1893, it was modeled after some of the best European Baroque and Eclectic theatres such as the Palais Garnier in Paris. The theatre was named after Polish poet Juliusz Słowacki in 1909 and in 1978 was inscribed alongside the Historic Centre of Kraków into the World Heritage Register.
The Kraków Cloth Hall (Polish: Sukiennice, pronounced [sukʲɛˈɲit͡sɛ]), in Lesser Poland, dates to the Renaissance and is one of the city's most recognizable icons. It is the central feature of the main market square in the Kraków Old Town (the historic center of Kraków), which since 1978 has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site).
The underground square central museum of Kraków is situated below the market square of the city and has an area of over 6000 square metres.
Work on the underground square first began at the start of 2009 and cost 38 million zloty. The museum first opened on 24 September 2010, at the time only displaying regular exhibitions. The main feature “In the footsteps of Krakow’s European identity” was launched three days after the museum's opening, on 27 September 2010.
The Kraków Barbican (Polish: Barbakan Krakowski) is a barbican – a fortified outpost once connected to the city walls. It is a historic gateway leading into the Old Town of Kraków, Poland. The barbican is one of the few remaining relics of the complex network of fortifications and defensive barriers that once encircled the royal city of Kraków in the south of Poland. It currently serves as a tourist attraction and venue for a variety of exhibitions.Today the Barbican is under the jurisdiction of The Historical Museum of the City of Kraków. Tourists may tour its interior with its displays outlining the historical development of fortifications in Kraków.
The Basilica of Holy Trinity (Polish: Bazylika Świętej Trójcy) in Kraków, Poland, is a gothic church and monastery of the Dominican Order. Its history dates from the year 1223.Saint Hyacinth is buried in the church.
Town Hall Tower in Kraków, Poland (Polish: Wieża ratuszowa w Krakowie) is one of the main focal points of the Main Market Square in the Old Town district of Kraków.
The Tower is the only remaining part of the old Kraków Town Hall (Ratusz, see painting, below) demolished in 1820 as part of the city plan to open up the Main Square. Its cellars once housed a city prison with a Medieval torture chamber.
In 1967, after a complex conservation which underlined its gothic ancestry, object was given to the Historical Museum in Cracow for management of it.
The Archaeological Museum of Kraków (Polish: Muzeum Archeologiczne w Krakowie) is a historic museum in Kraków, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland. It was established in 1850.
The Church of St. Andrew in the Old Town district of Kraków, Poland (Polish: Kościół św. Andrzeja) located at Grodzka Street, is a historical Romanesque church built between 1079 and 1098 by a medieval Polish statesman Palatine Sieciech. It is a rare surviving example of the European fortress church used for defensive purposes.
Built in Romanesque style, it is one of the oldest buildings in Kraków and one of the best-preserved Romanesque buildings in Poland. It was the only church in Kraków to withstand the Mongol attack of 1241. Along the lower part of the broader section of its façade are small openings that served as defensive windows at a time when the church was a place of refuge from military assaults.
From 1320 it was used by the Religious Order of Poor Clares. The building has been renovated many times. The present Baroque interiors have decorations by Baltazar Fontana, paintings by Karol Dankwart and gilded altars. The Baroque domes atop the octagonal towers were added in 1639.
The Altarpiece by Veit Stoss in Kraków (Polish: Ołtarz Wita Stwosza), also St. Mary's Altar (Ołtarz Mariacki), is among the largest Gothic altarpiece in Europe (competing with those in Sevilla and Zaragoza cathedrals in Spain) and a national treasure of Poland. It is located behind the High altar of St. Mary's Basilica in Kraków. The altarpiece was carved between 1477 and 1489 by the German sculptor Veit Stoss (known in Polish as Wit Stwosz) who lived and worked in the city for over 20 years.
In 1941, during the German occupation, the dismantled altarpiece was shipped to the Third Reich on the order of Hans Frank – the Governor-General of that part of occupied Poland. It was recovered in 1946 in Bavaria, hidden in the basement of the heavily bombed Nuremberg Castle. The High Altar underwent major restoration work in Poland and was put back in its place at the Basilica 10 years later.
Kanonicza Street (Polish: Ulica Kanonicza, lit. Canon Street) - a historic street in Kraków, Poland. The street was once part of the hamlet of Okół, connected with Kraków in 1401. Formerly, the buildings along the street housed cathedral canons, and to this day many of their Baroque and Renaissance have remained present.The southern end of the street was closed off with the Poboczna Gate, demolished during the urban modernisation of Kraków.
Smocza Jama (Polish for "dragon's den") is a limestone cave in the Wawel Hill in Kraków. Owing to its location in the heart of the former Polish capital and its connection to the legendary Wawel Dragon, it is the best known cave in Poland.
Wawel Dragon Statue (Polish: Pomnik Smoka Wawelskiego) is a monument at the foot of the Wawel Hill in Kraków, Poland, in front of the Wawel Dragon's den, dedicated to the mythical Wawel Dragon.
St. Florian's Gate or Florian Gate (Polish: Brama Floriańska) in Kraków, Poland, is one of the best-known Polish Gothic towers, and a focal point of Kraków's Old Town. It was built about the 14th century as a rectangular Gothic tower of "wild stone", part of the city fortifications against Turkish attack.
The Wielopolski Palace in Kraków, Poland, is the location of the Kraków City Council and the office of the President of Kraków. The palace and the courtyard buildings are located between the All Saints 3–4 Square (Plac Wszystkich Świętych) and the Deputies 8–12 Street (ul. Poselska), which is the official address of the City Hall.
Adam Mickiewicz Monument in Kraków, (Polish: pomnik Adama Mickiewicza w Krakowie), is one of the best known bronze monuments in Poland, and a favourite meeting place at the Main Market Square in the Old Town (Stare Miasto) district of Kraków.
The Archdiocesan Museum in Krakow is a museum consisting of Cardinal Karol Wojtyła's former residence in Krakow in houses no. 19–21 at Kanonicza Street. The museum was established in 1906 by Cardinal Jan Puzyna, but in its present form has existed since 1994. The official opening of the museum took place on 5 May 1994 and was performed by Cardinal Franciszek Macharski.The Archdiocesan Museum in Krakow is the house where Karol Wojtyła (later Pope John Paul II) as a young priest, then bishop and finally cardinal lived for 17 years, between 1951 and 1967. Due to this fact, an important part of the museum's collection consists of personal objects, which belonged to Karol Wojtyła, exhibited in the former rooms that were inhabited by him.Those objects are not only of sentimental, historical or artistic value but, above all, they allow us to take a closer look at the most important values present in life and ordained ministry of this great saint, as well as his rich teachings, which are still valid and important in the present days.
For cardinal Wojtyła, the idea of creating an Archdiocesan Museum in Krakow as a place which would present the spiritual, historical and artistic legacy of the Archdiocese of Krakow was a truly crucial matter. According to his wish, collection of sacral art from the 13th to 20th century, including paintings, sculpture and handcrafts from the region of the Archdiocese of Krakow, can be seen in the Museum. Among others it consist the oldest painted panel in Poland dated to the mid. 13th century and originated from wooden church in Dębno Podhalańskie.
Through many temporary exhibitions the Archdiocesan Museum also aims to promote the contemporary artists focusing on Christian art.In the year 2020, the Archdiocesan Museum in Krakow, in cooperation with Institute of Intercultural Dialogue of John Paul II in Krakow, is preparing an exhibition entitled “The Shepherd” (“Pasterz”). The exposition is consist of Karol Wojtyła's personal belongings – especially from his bishopric, archbishopric and cardinal periods, gifts he had been obtained from faithful at that time and objects from the period of his pontificate as a Pope – John Paul II.
The Church of St. Anne (Polish: Kolegiata św. Anny) is a Roman Catholic church located at 13 św. Anny Street in the UNESCO-protected historic centre of Kraków, Poland. It is one of the leading examples of Polish Baroque architecture designed by Tylman van Gameren, however, the church's history dates back to 14th century.
The Bishop's Palace in Kraków (Polish: Pałac Biskupi w Krakowie) is the seat of Kraków metropolitan Curia, Poland, and the traditional residence of Kraków bishops since the late 14th century. It is the second largest palace in the city after Wawel – former seat of the Polish monarchs. It is part of a monastery complex of the Franciscan Religious order. Bishop's Palace is best known for being the residence of Pope John Paul II during his stays in the city. He used to give his blessings and talk to his followers from a window above the main entrance at night.
Tadeusz Kościuszko Monument in Kraków (Polish: Pomnik Tadeusza Kościuszki w Krakowie), is one of the best known bronze monuments in Poland. It is the work of artists: Leonard Marconi, professor of Lviv University born in Warsaw, and his son in law, sculptor Antoni Popiel. The equestrian bronze statue of Kościuszko—Polish and American hero of independence—is located along the west side entrance to the Wawel Castle in the Old Town.
The historic Town Hall of Kraków, known as Ratusz in Polish, was demolished in 1820. It was constructed of brick and mortar for the first time in 1316 as one of its subsequent several versions built over the following centuries. It was the city's administrative hub and seat of the great council, magistrate, and mayor from the 14th until the early 19th century. It was located in the centre of Main Square in the Kraków Old Town. It used to be one of Poland's oldest seats of civic government. Of the building, only the Town Hall Tower remains, serving as prominent example of the Polish Gothic architecture in the city.The building was situated next to the Kraków Cloth Hall in the south-western part of the Main Square. The construction and reconstruction periods stretched across centuries, with various parts of the building enlarged and remodelled. The Town Hall was demolished in 1820 under the Austrian Partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth when the Main Square was also rebuilt, with only the tower being saved following public protests among prominent Cracovians. The building housed various offices of the city. There are proposals to reconstruct it.
The Nicolaus Copernicus Monument in Kraków (Polish: Pomnik Mikołaja Kopernika) is a notable landmark of Kraków, Poland. It memorializes the astronomer Copernicus, who studied at the Kraków Academy and whose father came from that city, then the capital of Poland.
The statue, designed by sculptor Cyprian Godebski in 1899, was completed in 1900. It originally stood in the courtyard of the Jagiellonian University's Collegium Maius. In 1953 it was moved to Kraków's Planty Park, in front of the Collegium Witkowski building.
Ogrody Królewskie na Wawelu is a botanical garden and museum in Kraków, Poland.
The Church of St. Casimir the Prince (Polish: Kościół św. Kazimierza Królewicza) in Kraków, Poland – with the adjacent Franciscan monastery and the catacombs – is located at ul. Reformacka 4 street in the Old Town district (Stare Miasto). Members of the Catholic Order of Franciscans known as "Little Brothers" arrived in Kraków in 1622 and settled at the outskirts of the town in Garbary (1625).
Church of St. Giles in Kraków (Polish: Kościół św. Idziego w Krakowie) is a Roman Catholic church of the Dominican Order located on Grodzka Street in Kraków. Its history dates to 11th century; it has been rebuilt many times since.
This is the only Roman Catholic church in Krakow with Holy Mass in English every Sunday. Thus, it caters to foreigners living in Krakow and tourists visiting the city.
Muzeum Geologiczne Instytutu Nauk Geologicznych PAN w Krakowie is a museum in Kraków, Poland. The collection dates back to 1865.
The Krzysztofory Palace is a small, baroque palace located on the main square of Kraków, in Małopolska region of southern Poland. It is the location of the Historical Museum of Kraków.
The John Paul II Cathedral Museum is a museum in Kraków, Poland. It is situated on Wawel Hill, between the Vasa Gate and the former seat of the Castle Seminary, in the Cathedral House, which is composed of two 14th century buildings.