Karl-Marx-Allee

File:Karl-Marx-Allee Fernsehturm.jpg

street in Berlin, Germany

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons category: Karl-Marx-Allee (Berlin)

Geographical coordinates: 52.517777777 13.435277777

Wikipedia

English Karl-Marx-Allee

The Karl-Marx-Allee is a monumental socialist boulevard built by the GDR between 1952 and 1960 in Berlin Friedrichshain and Mitte. Today the boulevard is named after Karl Marx. It should not be confused with the Karl-Marx-Straße in the Neukölln district of Berlin.

The boulevard was named Stalinallee between 1949 and 1961 (previously Große Frankfurter Straße), and was a flagship building project of East Germany's reconstruction programme after World War II. It was designed by the architects Hermann Henselmann, Hartmann, Hopp, Leucht, Paulick, and Souradny to contain spacious and luxurious apartments for workers, as well as shops, restaurants, cafés, a tourist hotel, and an enormous cinema, the Kino International.

The avenue, which is 89 metres (292 ft) wide and nearly 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) long, is lined with monumental eight-storey buildings designed in the wedding-cake style, the socialist classicism of the Soviet Union. At each end are dual towers at Frankfurter Tor and Strausberger Platz designed by Hermann Henselmann. The buildings differ in the revetments of the facades which contain often equally, traditional Berlin motifs by Karl Friedrich Schinkel. Most of the buildings are covered by architectural ceramics.

A monumental Stalin statue presented to the East German government by a Komsomol delegation on the occasion of the Third World Festival of Youth and Students was formally dedicated on 3 August 1951 after being temporarily placed at a location on the newly designed and impressive boulevard. It remained there until 1961 when it was removed in a clandestine operation in the course of de-Stalinization.

On June 17, 1953, the Stalinallee became the focus of a worker uprising which endangered the young state's existence. Builders and construction workers demonstrated against the communist government, leading to a national uprising. The rebellion was quashed with Soviet tanks and troops, resulting in the loss of at least 125 lives.

Later the street was used for East Germany's annual May Day parade, featuring thousands of soldiers along with tanks and other military vehicles to showcase the power and the glory of the communist government.

De-Stalinization led to the renaming of the street, after the founder of Marxism, in late 1961. Since the collapse of Eastern European communism in 1989/1990, renaming the street back to its prewar name Große Frankfurter Straße has periodically been discussed, so far without conclusive results.

The boulevard later found favour with postmodernists, with Philip Johnson describing it as 'true city planning on the grand scale', while Aldo Rossi called it 'Europe's last great street.' Since German reunification most of the buildings, including the two towers, have been restored.

Source: Karl-Marx-Allee

German Karl-Marx-Allee

Die Karl-Marx-Allee ist eine nach dem Philosophen und Gesellschaftstheoretiker Karl Marx benannte Straße in den Berliner Ortsteilen Mitte und Friedrichshain.

Der längere, Friedrichshainer Abschnitt ist durch Wohnblöcke und Türme in einem Stilmix aus Sozialistischem Klassizismus und preußischer Schinkelschule geprägt, der in den 1950er Jahren als Stalinallee errichtet wurde. Die Turmbauten am Frankfurter Tor und am Strausberger Platz vom Architekten Hermann Henselmann sind die städtebaulichen Höhepunkte der Anlage. Den Abschnitt in Mitte dominieren Plattenbauten aus den 1960er Jahren.

Die Straße hieß ursprünglich westlich des Frankfurter Tores der Berliner Zollmauer (etwa Kreuzung mit der Straße der Pariser Kommune) Große Frankfurter Straße und wurde am 21. Dezember 1949 anlässlich der Feiern zu Josef Stalins 70. Geburtstag zusammen mit der östlich anschließenden Frankfurter Allee in Stalinallee umbenannt. Seit dem 13. November 1961 heißt sie Karl-Marx-Allee. Die Frankfurter Allee wurde gleichzeitig wieder unter ihrem alten Namen abgetrennt, allerdings beginnt sie seitdem nicht mehr am originalen Frankfurter Tor, sondern am 1957 gleichnamig benannten Platz weiter östlich. Die Wohnbauten, die sich vom Strausberger Platz bis über das Frankfurter Tor hinaus in die Frankfurter Allee erstrecken, waren als „Arbeiterpaläste“ konzipiert und sollten die Stärke und Ingenieurskunst der DDR repräsentieren.

Source: Karl-Marx-Allee

Polish Karl-Marx-Allee (Berlin)

Karl-Marx-Allee (niem. aleja Karola Marksa) − ważna arteria komunikacyjna w Berlinie, w okręgach administracyjnych Mitte i Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg.

Aleja początkowo nosiła nazwę Große Frankfurter Straße, jednak 21 grudnia 1949 roku została przemianowana na Stalinallee (z niem. Aleja Stalina, z okazji 70. rocznicy urodzin wodza). Była sztandarowym projektem odbudowy Niemiec Wschodnich po II wojnie światowej. Została zaprojektowana przez takich architektów jak: Hermann Henselmann, Egon Hartmann, Hanns Hopp, Kurt Walter Leucht, Richard Paulick, Karl Souradny.

13 listopada 1961 dokonano kolejnej zmiany nazwy na Karl-Marx-Allee (obowiązującą do dziś). Prowadzi z Alexanderplatz przez Strausberger Platz aż do Frankfurter Tor, gdzie przechodzi w Frankfurter Allee. Aleja jest częścią drogi krajowej B1 i B5, pod nią biegnie linia metra U5.

16 czerwca 1953 roku robotnicy budowlani pracujący na Stalinallee rozpoczęli strajk przeciwko decyzjom o zwiększeniu norm wydajności pracy. Protesty rozprzestrzeniły się na inne części miasta i całą Niemiecką Republikę Demokratyczną.

Source: Karl-Marx-Allee (Berlin)

Russian Карл-Маркс-аллее

Карл-Маркс-аллее (нем. Karl-Marx-Allee — аллея Карла Маркса) — улица в берлинских районах Митте и Фридрихсхайн. Карл-Маркс-аллее известна монументальными жилыми зданиями в стиле социалистического классицизма, построенными в 1950-х годах.

Сначала аллея носила название «Большая Франкфуртская улица» (нем. Große Frankfurter Straße), но 21 декабря 1949 года по случаю 70-летия И. В. Сталина была переименована в аллею Сталина — Шталин-аллее (нем. Stalinallee), а с 13 ноября 1961 года носит имя знаменитого немецкого экономиста. Карл-Маркс-аллее начинается от Александерплац и идёт через площади Штраусбергер-плац до Франкфуртер-Тор, где затем переходит во Франкфуртер-аллее (нем. Frankfurter Allee — Франкфуртская аллея). Карл-Маркс-аллее входит в федеральную дорогу 1 (нем. Bundesstraße 1), которая на пути из Магдебурга пересекает Берлин в направлении Кюстрин-Киц, а также в федеральную дорогу 5, которая соединяет Франкфурт-на-Одере с Гамбургом. Под Карл-Маркс-аллее проложена линия U-Bahn 5, соединяющая Александерплац с Хёновом. Жилые дома на Карл-Маркс-аллее строились как «дворцы для рабочих» и были призваны отражать мощь инженерной мысли в ГДР.

Source: Карл-Маркс-аллее

cs Karl-Marx-Allee

Karl-Marx-Allee (třída Karla Marxe) je třída v Berlíně, v jeho východní části (tj. bývalém Východním Berlíně). Podobá se ruským prospektům. Nachází se v centru města, spojuje čtvrti Berlin Friedrichshain a Mitte.

Je ukázkou socialistického realismu v německé metropoli. Celková její délka je okolo dvou kilometrů, šířka pak průměrně dosahuje 89 m. Z obou stran Karl-Marx-Allee se nacházejí osmipatrové budovy, ve kterých byly umístěny různé obchody a služby.

Původní název této třídy byl Große Frankfurter Straße, pak mezi lety 1949 a 1961 Stalinallee. Právě na začátku 60. let v souvislosti s odstraňováním kultu osobnosti Josifa Stalina byla třída, stejně jako mnoho míst v tehdejším východním bloku, přejmenováno. Jednalo se o ikonu tzv. socialistické přestavby Německa (tedy její tehdy sovětské zóny). Ulici a její okolí navrhli tehdejší architekti Henselmann, Hartmann, Hopp, Leucht, Paulick a Souradny. Výstavba celé Karl-Marx-Allee s přilehlým okolím začala v roce 1952 a skončila zhruba o osm let později.

V červnu roku 1953 zde začala stávka, která později přerostla v protest proti komunistické moci v sovětském sektoru Německa; vzbouřili se dělníci, kteří pracovali na přestavbě a obnově města. Nepokoje se odsud rozšířily do celé země, což si vynutilo jejich potlačení silou, tedy východoněmeckými pořádkovými silami a následně i sovětskými vojsky. Během celé akce, která byla velmi brutální, zahynulo zhruba kolem sta lidí (oficiální odhad hovořil o 51[zdroj?], neoficiální až o 260 lidech), mnoho dalších lidí bylo zraněno.

V pozdějších dobách existence NDR se zde konaly prvomájové průvody či vojenské přehlídky, při nichž tehdejší komunistický režim představoval svoji moc a slávu.

Source: Karl-Marx-Allee

Spanish Karl-Marx-Allee

La Karl-Marx-Allee es un bulevar construido por la República Democrática Alemana entre 1952 y 1960 en los distritos de Friedrichshain y Mitte en Berlín. El bulevar fue llamado Stalinallee entre 1949 y 1961, y fue un estandarte del proyecto de la reconstrucción de Alemania Oriental después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial.

Fue diseñada por los arquitectos Hermann Henselmann, Richard Paulick, Hans Hopp, Karl Souradny y Kurt Leucht. Se planteó que el bulevar debía contener espaciosos y lujosos apartamentos para trabajadores, así como tiendas, restaurantes, cafés, un hotel turístico y un cine.

La avenida, tiene unos 89 metros de ancho y casi 2 kilómetros de largo y la bordean edificios de ocho pisos diseñados con el estilo socialista de la Unión Soviética. Al final de la avenida están las dos torres en Frankfurter Tor y la Strausberger Platz diseñadas por Hermann Henselmann. Los edificios presentan en sus fachadas diferentes motivos de la Berlín tradicional de Karl Friedrich Schinkel.

El 17 de junio de 1953, la Stalinallee se convirtió en el centro de una huelga de trabajadores que pudo hacer peligrar la existencia de la joven nación. Los constructores y obreros se manifestaron contra el gobierno comunista, conduciendo a una huelga nacional, que fue sofocada con tanques y tropas soviéticas, dando un resultado de una pérdida de al menos 125 vidas.

Después, la calle fue usada para celebrar el desfile del Día del Trabajador en Berlín Este, donde marchaban soldados, tanques y otros vehículos militares.

Desde la reunificación alemana muchos de los edificios, incluyendo las dos torres, han sido restauradas.

Source: Karl-Marx-Allee

French Karl-Marx-Allee

La Karl-Marx-Allee (KMA, à l'origine Große Frankfurter Straße jusqu'en 1949, puis Stalinallee jusqu'en 1961) est une avenue de Berlin en Allemagne.

Source: Karl-Marx-Allee

Italian Karl-Marx-Allee

Karl-Marx-Allee, dedicata al filosofo ed economista tedesco Karl Marx, è una strada di Berlino che corre nei quartieri di Mitte e di Friedrichshain. La strada è caratterizzata da edifici eretti durante gli anni cinquanta del XX secolo, per la maggior parte ascrivibili alla corrente cosiddetta del classicismo socialista. La strada era denominata inizialmente a ovest di Frankfurter Tor Große Frankfurter Straße e venne, in occasione del 70º compleanno di Stalin, unita alla continuazione Frankfurter Allee e ridenominata Stalinallee il 21 dicembre 1949.

L'attuale dedicazione a Karl Marx risale al 13 novembre 1961. Contemporaneamente venne ricostituita anche la precedente Frankfurter Allee, sebbene non a partire da Frankfurter Tor, bensì più a est, dall'omonima piazza. Gli edifici, che a partire da Strausberger Platz si susseguono oltre Frankfurter Tor ed oltre, furono concepiti come "Palazzi dei lavoratori" (Arbeiterpaläste) e destinati a rappresentare la capacità e la tecnica costruttiva della Repubblica Democratica Tedesca contemporanea.

Inizia ad Alexanderplatz, dirigendosi verso est, con una sede stradale a sei corsie affiancate da due ampie strisce di verde che separano il traffico dai grandi edifici residenziali. Al di sotto di essa corre la linea U5 della U-Bahn. È parte delle strade federali B 1 e B 5.

Il primo lotto della Karl-Marx-Allee (parte est) rappresentò, negli anni cinquanta, l'opera architettonica più ambiziosa della neonata Repubblica Democratica Tedesca, realizzato secondo i dettami del classicismo socialista, detto talvolta stile "torta nuziale" (Zuckerbäckerstil). Il secondo lotto che costituisce la parte occidentale della strada, venne costruito dal 1959 al 1965 utilizzando uno stile più moderno, e diede l'inizio all'uso su vasta scala delle costruzioni con blocchi prefabbricati (Plattenbau).

Source: Karl-Marx-Allee

Japanese カール=マルクス=アレー

カール=マルクス=アレー(ドイツ語: Karl-Marx-Allee, カール・マルクス並木通り)は旧東ベルリン地区にある大通り。

アレクサンダー広場よりフランクフルト門まで約2.5kmほどの長さであり(google マップ)、その後はフランクフルト (オーダー)に方面へ延びるフランクフルト並木通りに続く。

1949年に当初「スターリンアレー(Stalinallee, スターリン並木通り)」と改称されたが、スターリン批判の流れを受け1961年に現名称「カール=マルクス=アレー」となった。

沿道には1952年から1960年にスターリン様式の建築物が建設された。この建設作業中の1953年6月16日、スターリン=アレー(当時)の建設作業者が東ドイツ政府のノルマ引上に反対してストライキを起こし、これが発端となって東ベルリン暴動へと発展した。

建設工事の完成後、東ドイツが消滅するまでは国家的な行事を行う首都の大通りとしての役割を与えられ、メーデーのパレードや10月7日の建国記念日等に行われる国家人民軍の軍事パレードなどが行われていた。

Source: カール=マルクス=アレー

zh 卡尔·马克思大街

卡尔·马克思大街(德語:Karl-Marx-Allee)是德国柏林腓特烈斯海因和米特区的一条大街,由东德政府在1952-1960年作为战后重建的社会主义样板大街建造,全长2公里,路宽89米。

该大道以1949-1961年曾用名斯大林大街(德語:Stalinallee),1961年去斯大林化开始后,该大街以马克思主义的建立者卡尔·马克思命名。

1953年6月17日,在该大街上发生了东德六一七事件,建筑工人在斯大林大街示威游行,后被苏联军队镇压。

该大街是东德每年的五一节游行和共和国日国庆游行閱兵的道路。

Source: 卡尔·马克思大街

Wikivoyage

English Karl-Marx-Allee

The main street of former East Berlin. It is a big avenue, featuring neoclassical East German buildings, fountains and lakes.

SourceBerlin/East Central (en.wikivoyage.org)

Places located in Karl-Marx-Allee

Frankfurter Tor

The Frankfurter Tor ("Frankfurt Gate") is a large square in the inner-city Friedrichshain locality of Berlin. It is situated in the centre of the district, at the intersection of Karl-Marx-Allee and Frankfurter Allee (the eastbound federal highways No. 1 and No. 5) with the Warschauer Straße and Petersburger Straße ring road (federal highway No. 96a). The Frankfurter Tor station, on the city's U-Bahn line U 5, is located under the square.The previously unnamed square received the name “Frankfurter Tor” on 8 November 1957 in the course of its reconstruction after World War II. The designation recalls both the historic city gate of the Berlin Customs Wall, providing access to the road to the city of Frankfurt (Oder), as well as two former street names, Große Frankfurter Straße and Frankfurter Allee, for the Wilhelmine east–west axis of the major intersection at this location. The original location of the gate, however, was approximately 850 metres (2,790 ft) west of today’s Frankfurter Tor intersection, near Weberwiese station. The densely built-up area was largely destroyed by the bombing of Berlin in World War II and the Battle of Berlin in 1945.

Both Große Frankfurter Straße and Frankfurter Allee were renamed Stalinallee in 1949 in honor of the Soviet leader. In a clandestine operation in 1961 after Stalin’s personality cult had been denounced by the Soviet Union the western portion of Stalinallee, the former Große Frankfurter Straße, was given the name Karl-Marx-Allee, and the eastern portion received back its former name, Frankfurter Allee. The prominent twin towers on the western side of the square, significant examples of the Stalinist architectural style, were built between 1953 and 1956 as part of the socialist Stalinallee ensemble according to plans designed by Hermann Henselmann. Their architecture evokes the idea of a city entrance (thus the designation “Tor”, gate, gateway), because the height of their domed towers and their location form a prominent beginning for today’s Karl-Marx-Allee, once the imposing western portion of Stalinallee. The tops of the two towers are in the style of the domes designed by Carl von Gontard for Gendarmenmarkt. The buildings, square and street intersection at Frankfurter Tor are a listed ensemble, protected for its historic relevance.(This article incorporates information from the German Wikipedia)

Strausberger Platz

The Strausberger Platz is a large urban square in the Berlin district of Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg and marks the border to the district of Mitte. It is connected via Karl-Marx-Allee with Alexanderplatz and via Lichtenberger Straße with the Platz der Vereinten Nationen. These two streets intersect in an oval roundabout at Strausberger Platz.

Berghain

Berghain (German pronunciation: [bɛɐ̯k.haɪn]) is a nightclub in Berlin, Germany. It is named after its location near the border between Kreuzberg and Friedrichshain in Berlin, and is a short walk from Berlin Ostbahnhof main line railway station. An American journalist described Berghain in 2007 as "quite possibly the current world capital of techno, much as E-Werk or Tresor were in their respective heydays".

Computerspielemuseum Berlin

The Computerspielemuseum Berlin is a video game museum that was founded in 1997. From 1997 to 2000, it had a permanent exhibition in Berlin. Afterwards, it became an online only museum. In 2011, it reopened its permanent exhibition in Berlin's neighborhood of Friedrichshain in the Karl-Marx-Allee. During the first month of its permanent exhibition, it had 12,000 visitors.

Weberwiese

Weberwiese is a Berlin U-Bahn station located on the U 5 line, which currently runs from Alexanderplatz to Hönow. The station is located under Karl-Marx-Allee directly east of Straße der Pariser Kommune. Although the next station on the line is called Frankfurter Tor, the historical city gate Frankfurter Tor actually stood at the location of the Weberwiese station. Several of the stations on this line have been recently redeveloped and are now colour-coded. In 2003, Weberwiese station was renovated and now has a very different appearance, with yellow tiles in contrast to its former white ones.

Hochhaus an der Weberwiese

The Hochhaus an der Weberwiese (literally "high house on the weaver's meadow") is a residential building in Berlin, located in the district of Friedrichshain.

Built as part of the plan for post-war reconstruction, it was the first example of socialist classicism in the German Democratic Republic.

Above the main doorway is a quotation from Bertolt Brecht:

Frankfurter Tor

Frankfurter Tor is a station on U-Bahn line U 5 in Berlin, Germany. It is situated under Frankfurter Tor, a large square.

Strausberger Platz

Strausberger Platz is a Berlin U-Bahn station located on the U 5.

Referenced from

located on streetKino International
located on streetKosmos Cinema
located on streetComputerspielemuseum Berlin
located on streetWeberwiese
located on streetHotel Berolina
located on streetStalin Statue
located on streetFrankfurter Tor
located on streetSchillingstraße station
located on streetHaus der Gesundheit
located on streetDeutsche Sporthalle
located on streetStrausberger Platz
located on streetCafé Warschau
located on streetCafé Moskau
located on streetMokka-Milch-Eis-Bar
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eo Karolo-Markso-Aleofr Karl-Marx Alleehe שדרת קרל מרקסja カール・マルクス・アレーru Карл-Маркс-аллееzh 卡尔·马克思大道
Image source:
Wikimedia Commons CC-BY-SA-3.0 by AndreHuppertz